Reicher and Haslam

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 09-03-14 16:40
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  • Reicher and Haslam
    • Aim
      • If people really accept given roles uncritically
      • If those in power exercise it without restraint
      • I fthose without power accept their situation without complaint
    • Method
      • IV's
        • Permeability of roles
        • Legitimacy of roles (not introduced)
        • Cognitive alternatives
      • DV's
        • Clinical variables
        • Social variables
        • Organisational variables
      • prison in elmstree film studios with lockable cells
      • Experimental case study
    • Ethics
      • ppt's medical, clinical and background was screened
      • ppt's were monitored by clinical psychologists
      • Paramedic always on duty
      • Security guards present
      • 5 person ethic committee could terminate experiment
    • Participants
      • 332 applied in response to adverts in local press
      • Psychometric tests measuring social and clinical variables
      • Full wekend assessment by clinical psychologists
        • Reduced to 27
          • Psychometric tests measuring social and clinical variables
          • Medical and character references obtained and police checks
      • Medical and character references obtained and police checks
      • 15 were chosen to represent diversity
        • matched into 5 groups of 3 (personality variables)
          • one randomly allocated guard
    • Procedure
      • Guards
        • Met at a hotel the night before
          • shown time table and told to make the prison run smoothly
          • Asked to draw up a set of rules (no physical violence aloud)
        • Given tour of prison and keys
        • Had superior accommodation and meals
        • Had formal trousers, shirt and tie
      • Prisoners
        • Arrived and heads shaven, given a tshirt with a 3 digit number, loose trousers and flimsy sandals
        • Only told no violence was allowed
        • Loud speaker announced one could be promoted
    • Results
      • Phase 1
        • Social identification
          • guards did not develop group identity as could not agree common norms
          • Could not internalize power
          • Thought it was unfair that they had complete power
        • Social identification (prisoners)
          • in first 3 days failed to identify as a group
          • Worked hard to become promoted
          • Behaviour was self interested
        • Permeability of roles
          • After day 3 when a prisoner was promoted there could be no more role changes
          • Prisoners developed a group identity
            • Started challenging guards
        • Clinical variables
          • Prisoners levels of self efficacy increased and depression decreased
            • opposite true for guards
          • Psychometric tests
        • Cognitive alternatives
          • trade union official introduced on day 5
            • Prisoners became aware of cognitive alternatives
          • Prisoners broke out of cells on day 6
      • Phase 2
        • Participants decided to continue as a self governing commune
        • Some participants felt marginalized and failed to contribute to commune
          • Began to violate rules but there was no procedure for dealing with rebellion
            • Day 8 rebels were planning to implement an authoritarian  system
    • Conclusion
      • Peoples behaviour governed by social norms of group
      • Failing groups creates problems as people accept extreme alternatives
      • Breakdown of groups and powerlessness of individuals creates tyranny
  • Began to violate rules but there was no procedure for dealing with rebellion
    • Day 8 rebels were planning to implement an authoritarian  system

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