regulatory malfunctions

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  • regulatory system malfunctions
    • brain: stroke
      • two types: ischaemic and haemorrhagic
        • ischaemic
          • clots block blood vessels in the brain
            • deprives area in the brain of valuable oxygen
              • = cells to die
        • haemorrhagic
          • blood vessels leading to the brain ruptures
            • cutting off the blood supply
              • escaping blood puts pressure on brain tissue
                • damaging cells
      • blockage can be temporary and unblocks itself
        • transient ischaemic attack TIA
      • symptoms
        • numbness
        • weakness on one side of the body
        • drooping on one side of the face
        • slurred speech
        • blurred vision
      • long term effects
        • difficulty swallowing
        • memory loss
        • depression
        • mobility issues
    • kidney: nephrotic syndrome
      • usually childhood conditon
      • immune system overreacts
      • kidney starts to attack glomerulus and bowmans capsule
        • in particular basement membrane
      • glomerulus capillaries are damaged
        • blood proteins escape into the urine
      • albumin is lost
        • which is responsible for tissue fluid getting back to veins
          • from capillary beds
            • = more fluid collects in the tissue
              • = swelling
      • antibodies are lost so ability to warn of infections is compromised
      • blood clotting proteins are also lost in urine
        • results in easy bruising and slower blood clotting


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