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  • military
    • After the Crimean disaster this was a top priority. The Russian army was ill-equipped, technologically behind the rest of Europe in that it needed modern weaponry, iron-clad steam-ships and railways so as to improve the transport of troops and provisions (logistics).
      • The quality of recruits was questionable, serfs had been unwilling conscripts who were forced to serf for 25 years – this would impact on morale and motivation.
    • Dimitrii Milyutin
      • reformed the army to created a smaller and more efficent army
    • better food and medical treatment given to troops
      • length of service was reduced from 25 years to 15 years
      • conscription was for all classes and modern weaponary was introduced and railways were built and education was improved
    • Many members of the nobility were opposed to the reforms. Russia still lagged behind in terms of technology.
    • Members of the nobility dodged conscription by getting substitutes to serve in their place. Also the officer class continued to be dominated by the nobility.
    • Lack of industrialization was still an issue which meant that the state could not supply sufficient arms, ammunition and uniforms to its army.
    • reforms of alexander II
      • education
        • russia seriously lagged behind the west in terms of education. Any education that existed was firmly in the hands of the church,
        • Alexander realised that when serfdom was abolished, the serfs needed a higher standard of education to enable them to make a greater contribution to the state
        • Alexander took education out of the hands of the church and placed the Zemstvain charge of education, giving the liberal Alexander Golovnin the job of Minister for Education (1862-1867).
        • Universities could govern themselves and appoint their own teaching staff. and students were offered a wide range of subjects to broaden their minds.
          • Primary and secondary education was extended throughout the country
          • Schools were open to all, including both sexes and students were encouraged to go to university
        • People were being taught how to think and the freedoms enjoyed by the universities encouraged more and more radical thinkers
          • This resulted in the government clamping down and reasserting its controlling 1866.
        • the numbers of schools rose dramatically and by 1880 over a million children were in primary education
      • judicial system
        • Before emancipation the serfs did not have fair access to the law; they were always presumed guilty, unless proven innocent and they were not allowed to defend themselves in court. There was no jury, no defense lawyer and no witness statements; the judge’s verdict was final.
        • in 1864, Dmitrii Zamyatnin, minister of justice introduced a new legal system which was modeled on the western system.
          • Judges were appointed by the tsar and were trained and given pay so that they were less likely to be bribed. Magistrates were elected by the zemstva every three years. The laws were codified (overhauled) so that maximum and minimum penalties were fixed
        • It had local courts for minor offences and district courts for more serious ones and the gravest offences were heard in the Senate. The principle of equality before the law was established and criminal cases at district level were heard before barristers and a jury and the defendant could employ a defense counsel
          • .Furthermore,proceedings were open to the public and the press. There was also aright to appeal.
        • the reduction of the censorship of the press and the freedom of speech in the courts allowed political prisoners to challenge the authority of the state
      • censorship
        • Alexander relaxed censorship of the press and in 1863 .
          • Russian newspapers were allowed for the very first time to comment on government policy.The relaxation of restrictions allowed new ideas to circulate amongst the liberal intelligentsia, people became more aware that there were different ways of doing things and people could speculate about change.
        • The numbers of books published in Russia rose from 1020 in 1855 to 10,691 in 1894
          • new ideas about change were circulating. This proved to be disastrous for Alexander, but obviously a positive for ordinary Russian people.
            • Alexander came under increasing pressure from his fellow nobles to re-impose strict censorship and this was done in 1870


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