Power and The People, Reform and Reformers 2

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  • Reform and Reformers 2
    • The Development of Trade Unions
      • In the industrial revolution, many workers were exploted by landowners so joined together in trade unions
        • Trade unions have been round since the medieval times but they were known as guilds; groups of men controlled pay and work conditions
      • What happened?
        • 1.1799- combination acts put restrictions on groups of workers forming trade unions
          • 2.1824-25- Many strikes through 24 so in 25 combin-ation acts were passed, bringing a stop to picketing and intimidation. This made trade unions weaker
            • 3. 1834- Robert Owen set up the grand national consolidated trade union (GNCTU). There were 1/2 a million members in 1 week which worried the gov. Conflict between miners and factory workers weakened the union
    • The Tolpuddle Martyr's
      • Who were they?
        • A group of labourers from Tolpuddle who formed a trade union
        • They met under a sycamore tree in the village
        • They wanted fairer wages and better working conditions
        • George Loveless, James Loveless, James Brine, James Hammett, Thomas Stansfield and John Stansfield
      • What did they do?
        • They didn't break any laws by being part of a trade union but no secret oaths could be taken
        • The local land owner heard about this and was worried
      • Their Punishment
        • The men were found guilty of making a secret oath so were arrested
        • At this time the death penalty was seen as too harsh so instead they were sent as convicts to Australia
      • Consquences
        • At first the gov were reluctant to reverse their decision but persistant campaigns made them change their minds
        • On March 14th 1836, all were given a full pardon. The Trade Unions had won
        • Many involved in this movement were also involved in the Chartist movement
      • Publics Reaction
        • The News of the sentence was received and groups named them the Tolpuddle Martyrs
        • Robert Owen called a meeting of the GNCTU and 10,000 attended
        • They gathered petitions and demanded the men were returned to England
    • New Unionism
      • Matchbox Girls Strike 1888
        • CAUSES
          • Factory conditions were poor and many became ill
          • White phosphorous from matches caused 'phosy jaw'  which caused jaws to rot and teeth loss
          • Often fined for not working quick enough
          • Money was taken from their wages to build a statue of the PM
        • DEMANDS
          • They wanted better wages, to improve working conditions and to be treated better by factory owners
          • Annie Besanr helped to set up the strike by writing "White Slaves of London"
          • The strike action paid off
          • Emploers agrred and removed the system of deductions an fines
          • Workers were given a pay rise
          • First successful strike by un skilled manual workers
      • The Dockers Strike 1189
        • DEMANDS
          • Wanted a raise from 5 to 6 pence an hour and 8 pence for overtime
          • At least 4 hours of work everyday
          • The Men marched through London with rotten veg and fish heads
          • Picketed the gates of London docks to pressure managers and prevent people from working
          • Gained the support of Londons Lord Mayorand Cardinal Mannings
          • Unions in Australia donated £30,000  to help the strike and meant that they received a pay rise and 4 hours of work a day


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