Unit 4: Agriculture - Reducing Soil Erosion

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  • Reducing Soil Erosion
    • Cultivation of Long-Term Crops e.g. fruit, trees
      • Does not require regular soil disturbance so erosion is reduced
    • Not Cultivating on Steep Slopes
    • Terracing
      • Horizontal fields landscaped onto hills with retaining walls - prevents drainage water flowing down hills
    • Contour Ploughing
      • Up and down creates farrows - more runoff so ploughing along slows water down
    • Ploughing Across the Wind
      • Right angles to prevailing winds creates ridges that reduce wind speeds
    • Zero-Tillage Farming (No Ploughing)
      • Direct drilling to plant seeds and weed control reduces ploughing
    • Tied Ridges
      • Interconnecting ridges surround hollows where crops are grown - rainwater collects and infiltrates soil
    • Windbreaks
      • Hedgerows and trees reduce wind velocity
    • Multicropping
      • Lots of crops at the same time = planting and harvest at different times
    • Strip Cropping
      • Multicropping where crops are grown in long narrow strips
    • Mulching
      • Adding dead organic matter to soil, reducing soil disturbance
    • Increasing Soil Organic Matter Content
    • Control of Livestock
      • Reducing numbers prevents overgrazing and trampling
      • Remove animals in extreme weather - avoid bogging or compaction
      • Supplementary feeding and restricting movement


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