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  • Redemption
    • Scrooge
      • Source of dramatic tension as it is questionable whether or not he will achieve redemption.
      • At first it seems like he will never change
        • 'It's enough for a man to understand his own business, and not to interfere with other people's'
      • Concerned he is 'past all hope' but in the last chapter he turns things around
      • Used to not be mean
      • He used to love others more than money and is capable of this, so may return to his old ways.
      • Behaviour change leads to redemption
      • At the end he is 'glowing with his good intentions'
        • Kindness and generosity that allows him to 'sponge away' his name from his grave
        • It is like he has been reborn - 'I'm quite a baby'
      • used to 'warning all human sympathy to keep its distance' but he is taught how to empathise with others
        • Pity for boyhood self and carol singer he rejected
        • Remembers the fun he had at Fezziwig's and empathises with his own clerk
        • Learns Fred who regularly displays empathy
        • Scared by the lack of sadness shown by others towards his death
      • Th empathy felt towards Tiny Tim is what causes him to change the most
    • Dickens shows that everyone can achieve redemption.
      • Marley admits his chains were forged of his own 'free will' and chose not to change.
    • Scrooge's father
      • Foreshadows Scrooge's own redemption
      • 'is so much kinder than he used to be'
    • Marley
      • Similar to Scrooge
      • responsible for 'procuring' the 'chance and hope' that will help save Scrooge from his fate
      • Because Marley is now helping others, it is more likely that Scrooge will change
    • Dickens believed that Christianity was about practical kindness and willingness to help others
    • Spirits showed him things that made him want to change but did not force him to do so.
      • He is determined to not 'shut out the lessons that they teach'
      • 'The time before him was his own, to make amends in'
        • The time he has left is the time when he can make up for his previous behaviour
        • The fact he changes on his own free will makes it more powerful


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