Reconstruction

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  • Reconstruction
    • Emancipation proclomation 1863
      • Slavery would remain untouched in the states that returned to the union by January 1863
      • There after all slaves in emenemy territory conquered by Union armys would be foreever free
      • Changed war aims to end slavery
    • 13th Amendment 1865
      • Abolished slavery
    • Reconstruction confederate style
      • After following Johnsons steps and becoming a state they then proceeded to elect legislatures,govoners and members of congress
      • The south then searched for means of keeping the free men under control
        • No state southern state granted equal citizenship and the vote to blacks
          • Instead introduced Black codes. To ensure that blacks remained second class citizens
            • Some codes meant that blacks had to carry around employment documents with them .
              • Those that were broke or unemployed could forcibly be sent to work
                • Some codes prevented blacks from renting/buying land
                  • Some prevented them from receiving poor relief and education
            • Enforced by a white legal system  that made little that justic was being enforced correctly
      • Wanted to return the South back to how it was
      • Although Johnson new this was happening but he believed in a states rights ideollogy
      • Restoration was complete in December 1865
    • Colonisation schemes
      • Lincoln was worried that Blacks and whites would not get on therefore set up schemes for them to move to latin America/ Carrabian
    • Congress vs Johnson
      • Congress tried to enlarge the powers of the Freemens bureau
        • Johnson vetoed it
          • Republicans could no longer work with him
            • Moderate and radical republicans joined forces
              • Introduced a civil rights act in which aimed to give minimal rights to blacks
                • Define all people born in the USA as national citizens
                  • Measure allowed federal government to intervene in states affairs where necessary to protect rights of US citizens
                    • Johnson vetoed this act
                      • April 1866 a two thirds majority override Johnsons vetoe
                        • Cicil rights act become law few weeks later congress passed a second freedmen bureau act over Johnsons vetoe
    • Freedmens bureau March 3rd 1865
      • Set up to help relieve suffering of Southern blacks and poor whites
        • By providing food ,cloths ,medical care , established schools and offered legal assistance
          • Setttled ex slaves onto confederate confiscated lands
      • The bureau was prevented from fully carrying out its programs due to a shortage of funds and personnel
        • Closed in 1872
    • Death of Lincoln 14th April 1865
      • Killed by John Booth
    • Andrew Johnson Reconstruction 1865
      • Had said previous that he would take a togher approach to the rebels
      • Said he would continue Lincolns policies and kept his cabinet
      • Wanted USA to return to normal ASAP
      • Saw no alternative but to work with ex-confederates
      • May 1865 extended recognition to Southern governments creayed under Lincolns administartion
      • General amnesty to Southerners made them swear an oath of allegiance
      • Confederate office holders were exempted however they could apply for a pardon in which he gave thousands
        • If pardoned land was returned to them
      • Made the process of states returning to the union easy
        • Appointed provisional state governors
          • They held elections where whites could vote for state conventions
            • The new conventions were to draw up new constitutions in which made slavery illegal
              • When this was done states were readmitted into the union
    • 14th Amendment
      • Two prevent the Civil righhts act could not be changed in the future both houses of congress embodied the civil rights act
        • This therefore guranteed all citizens equality through the law
      • Added to constitution July 1868
    • 1866 midterm election
      • Republicans won all but 3 states
        • Had two thirds majority in both houses meaning they could override any presedential vetoe
    • Radical (congressional reconstruction
      • Republicans dominated congress it now took over the reconstruction process
        • In 1867 passed congress passed a military reconstruction act
          • No legal governments excisted in any ex confederate states except Tennessee
          • 10 southern states to be divided into 5 military districts
            • Each under a federal commander
          • To return to the union southern states had to ellect contitutional conventions which would accept the 14th amendment
          • Also reduced Johnsons power
            • Commander of Army act - reduced Johnsons military power
            • Tenure office act - barred him from removing office holders
    • Johnson impeached
      • Republicans convinced that Johnson had broken the law
      • After a two month trial Johnson he was not impeach due to not having a two thirds majority against him (short by 1 vote)
      • Although he survived for most of his term he was a lame duck president
        • However he pardonned loads of leading southerners
    • Grant becomes president 1868
      • Won easily due to Democrats campaighning against black equality
    • 15th Amendment
      • Added to constitution in 1870
      • Stated that the right to vote should not be denied on account of race , colour of previous conditions of servitude
    • Civil rights act of 1875
      • Forbidding discrimination in hotels, trains, and other public spaces, was unconstitutiona
    • 1877 Compromise
      • Cause
        • 1876 election Tilden vs Hayes
      • Solutution
        • Hayes acepted as president
          • In return all troops withdrawn from the South
        • Recognise democrat government in the 3 disputed states

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