Rebellions and Disorder under the Tudors 1485-1601

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  • Rebellions and Disorder under the Tudors 1485-1603
    • Henry VII
      • Lovell and Stafford 1486
        • Led by Lord Lovell and the Stafford brothers who were minor nobles ,who were attained and had their lands taken by the crown after the battle of Bosworth as they were supporters of Richard III
        • Aimed to detain and kill Henry VII whilst he travelled on his royal progress. He found out about this plot and sent close nobles to offer the rebels pardons
        • Lovell fled to Flanders, and the Stafford brothers tried to seek sanctuary but Henry had them removed. The older brother was executed whilst the younger brother was pardoned in return for his loyalty
        • FAILED
        • DYNASTIC SUCESSION
      • Simnel    1486-7
        • Lambert Simnel claimed to be Edward, Earl of Warwick, one of the princes in the tower. This claim would have a stronger right to the throne than Henry VII
        • DYNASTIC SUCESSION
        • Failed to gain support, and Henry defeated the rebels that were involved at East Stoke where Simnel was captured and was later made a servant in the royal household
        • FAILED
      • Yorkshire  1489
        • TAXATION
        • People in Yorkshire were unwilling to pay taxes to fund a war against France
        • Northumberla-nd was killed as he was trying to collect the tax
        • Henry sent a royal army to settle the  5000 rebels at York. They were defeated and Egremont fled to France
        • The tax was not collected
        • LIMITED SUCCESS
      • Warbeck   1497
        • Perkin Warbeck claimed to be Richard, Duke of York, the other brother of the princes in the tower
        • Warbeck won support from France, Burgundy and Scotland to remove Henry VII. But all of this foreign support withdrew
        • DYNASTIC SUCESSION
        • Warbeck abandoned as he realised that he would not be able to fulfil his aims. He sought sanctuary where he was captured and confessed. He was imprisoned in the Tower of London and later executed
    • Henry VIII
      • Cornish    1497
        • TAXATION
        • People in Cornwall were unwilling to pay taxes to fund a war against Scotland
        • Led by Lord Audley, who was an experienced soldier with gentry support who believed they had not been rewarded well for their loyalty and were angry with Henry
        • The rebels were frustrated with the kings evil advisers rather than directly at the king.
        • 15,000 rebels, cross-class support. numbers decreased as they got closer to london, as they were worried about the royal army and it was also Harvest season and so they had to get back to tend to their crops
        • The rebellion was crushed at the Battle of Blackheath, 100 rebels were killed and the rest fled. Fines were imposed in suspected individuals as well as the county as a whole
        • LIMITED SUCCESS
      • Amicable Grant 1525
        • Suffolk were unwilling and supposedly unable to pay taxes to fund a war against France. Protesters in Suffolk claimed that they could not pay the tax due to high unemployment
        • With rebels refusing to pay, the government had to stand down and Henry announced that the tax would be abandoned
        • Ringleaders were fined as compensationThe invasion of France was also cancelled and negotiations for an Anglo-French treaty started
        • No tax was collected
        • SUCCESS
        • TAXATION
      • Kildare (Silken Thomas) 1534-7
        • The Kildare family had always acted as the crowns deputy in Ireland. Silken Thomas started to lose influence to English officials
        • The rebels attacked the religious changes under Henry VIII. Silken wanted to drive the English out of Ireland and rule it himself.
        • The rebels were defeated and executed, Kildare retreated then later surrendered. Henry VIII beheaded Kildare and 5 of his uncles in attempt to destroy the Kildare family.
        • The rebellion cost Henry £40,000 and 14 months of effort. From then on, a reform was made in Ireland stating that the Deputy in Ireland would always be English
    • Edward VI
      • Western (prayer book rebellion) 1549
        • An isolated location which did not owe England the same level of loyalty as other counties. The new prayer book and Act of Uniformity was introduced, people disliked this and came together under the leadership of Sir Humphrey Arundell at Bodmin.
        • RELIGIOUS
        • Rebels attacked and robbed the gentry in Bodmin, shouting "kill the gentlemen".
        • Protesters insisted that the priest say mass in the traditional Latin style
        • Edward VI did not withdraw the prayer book but he fixed grain prices and maintained arable land which did assist the poor
        • LIMITED SUCCESS
      • Kett's        1549
        • Robert Kett led a rebellion in Norfolk against illegal enclosures and agrarian practices adopted by the county gentry
        • Poverty was particularly bad due to Henry VII's war taxation
        • SOCIAL ISSUES
        • Peoples wages were dropping and the price of grain was particularly high due to the bad harvest. There was economic discontent
        • Kett was a local landowner and had an enclosure up but saw the discontent it created and took it down. Fellow local landowners however did not react the same and so Kett encouraged locals to pull enclosures down
        • 16,000 rebels. Kett created a list of 29 rebel grievances, not one was regarding a religious issue.
        • Lacked influential support and longevity and  once the rebellion was put down, Kett was hanged
        • LIMITED SUCCESS
    • Mary
      • Northumberland (Lady Jane Grey)      1553
        • DYNASTIC SUCESSION
        • The Duke of Northumberland attempted to prevent Mary from gaining the throne by asserting the claim of Lady Jane Grey, his daughter in law
        • If Edward VI was to die without any children then his half sister Mary would become Queen who was a dedicated catholic and it was presumed that if she was queen she would change the church back to Catholicism
        • Northumberland planned to marry his son to Lady Jane Grey who was Edward VI's cousin, as Edwards will was changed so that the throne would be left tot Lady Jane Grey's male descendants.
        • The will was then changed again so that Lady Jane Grey would inherit the throne no matter if she had male descendants or not. Edward died before this change could be made and dso Mary was still named heir.
        • Mary secured the throne because Londoners backed her claim over Lady Jane Grey's. Jane, her father and his son's were all imprisoned.
        • SUCCESS
      • Wyatt's     1554
        • Mary was childless, unmarried and 42 years old and so needed a heir. Her mother being Spanish saw potential in Philip II.
        • DYNASTIC SUCESSION
        • People became concerned that Spain would dominate England and that it would turn into nothing more than a Spanish military camp, with all the important jobs going to the Spanish.
        • had the support of France, although the support wasn't that large, geographically it was close to London and therefore a threat
        • When Wyatt's troops arrived in London, they were tired, hungry and lacked morale. Royal forces crushed the rebels and Mary did not act harshly on them, executing 71 out of 480
        • Philip never coronated and spent very little time in England
    • Elizabeth
      • Shane O'Neil 1558-67
        • Shane O'Neil was the eldest legitimate son of the Earl of Tyrone and did not like English interference and wanted to control Ulster.
        • He murdered the favourite older illegitimate son, Matthew
        • Elizabeth paid the O'Donnell's to murder Shane and once that he was actually killed in a brawl with a rival clan,  the uprising ended
        • POWER
        • FAILED
      • Northern Earls      1569-70
        • Elizabeth had been proclaimed illigitimate and many Englishmen believed that Mar, Queen of Scots was  the rightful queen of England. Mary was put under house arrest by Elizabeth
        • It was planned that Mary was to marry the Duke of Norfolk so that Elizabeth would have to name her as her legitimate heir. Northumberland was executed for being a ringleader but Westmoreland who was also involved was neevr caught
        • SUCESSION
        • FAILED
      • Munster (Fitzgerald 1)
        • James Fitzgerald rose up against English plantations in munster
        • over 800 rebels were executed but Fitzgerald escaped to France
        • SOCIAL ISSUES
        • FAILED
      • Geraldine 1579-83
        • Fitzgerald returned from Ireland to raise rebels to protest against religious and political policies
        • Fitzgerald was killed, rebels were rounded up and the rebellion ended
        • POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS
        • FAILED
      • Tyrone   1595-1603
        • Raised support form every Irish province against English rule in Ireland and Elizabeth underestimated the scale of this uprising
        • Elizabeth sent her military commander, Lord Mountjoy who persuaded Tyrone to submit and back down.
        • SOCIAL AND POLITICAL
        • FAILED
      • Oxfordshire 1596
        • only 4 rebels turned up to fight and all of them were executed
        • ENCLOSURE
        • FAILED
        • Restrictions on enclosures were lifted resulting in new enclosures
      • Essex 1601
        • FAILED
        • FACTIONS
        • the Earl of Essex was a former favourite of Elizabeth and so wanted to raise support against the dominance of the Cecil faction
        • The uprising only lasted 12 hours and no nobles were willing to risk their life of threaten the queen and so the support was just not significant enough
        • Essex was captured and executed along with a handful of his household servants

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