Reasons for the Growth of German Nationalism

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  • Reasons for the Growth of German Nationalism
    • The Legacy of the French Revolution
      • The Bund, 1815
        • Agreed at the Congress of Vienna, 1815. Designed to restore the Ancien Regime and prevent nationalism from spreading. Austria is the permanent chair and all votes must be unanimous.
      • Liberalism
        • The French Revolution had the ideas of liberalism, which spread to the German states through the French occupation and proved that a unified state could achieve anything.
      • French Occupation, 1806-1813
        • Left the memory of harsh French control. Bred distrust of non-German speaking countries.
    • Cultural Development
      • Hambach Festival, 1832
        • Celebration of German identity, attended by over 25,000 Germans from all states
      • Wartburg Festival, 1817
        • Celebration of the 4th anniversary of the Battle of Leipzig, where German forces helped to beat Napoleon
      • War Scare, 1840
        • France threatened to take possession of territory on the German side of the Rhine. Songs were sung, such as "The Watch on The Rhine" and "Deutschland Uber Alles"
      • The Carlsbad Decrees, 1817
        • The Bund  passed decrees which banned student societies, censored literature and sacked nationalist teachers following the murder of a police spy by a student.
    • Economic Development
      • The Zollverein, 1834
        • A  customs union set up by Prussia to include other states and exclude Austria. 25 out of 39 German states were involved by 1836.
      • Expansion of Railways
        • Exposed travellers to the similarity of all German states. Ends isolation and increases economic competitiveness. By 1850, over 3000 miles of railway had been built.
      • Urbanisation
        • By the 1840's 184,000 tonnes of pig iron was produced per year and 6 million tonnes of coal. Many more jobs are created.
    • Political Development
      • Liberalism and nationalism
        • Liberalists wanted less power to go to monarchy and more equality. Nationalists were usually liberals who felt that the best way to achieve this was a united Germany. The middle class were the main ones involved in politics as the 1840 famine meant that the working class were focused on survival,
      • 1848 Revolution
        • Growth of liberal and nationalist political ideals among the middle classes and increasingly among the working classes. The 1848 revolution wanted a united Germany.
      • The Frankfurt Parliament
        • As a result of the 1848 revolution the Frankfurt Parliament was formed in 1848 and ended in 1849. It contained candidates from all German states and openly discussed unification. However, when Frederick William of Prussia was offered emperorship of a united Germany he refused. The Parliament came up with a constitution that had 50 articles of Human Rights but could not enforce them.


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