Reasons for the decline in death rate

  • Created by: NotGina
  • Created on: 02-12-19 09:44
View mindmap
  • Reasons for the decline in the death rate
    • Tranter (1996)
      • fall in number of deaths from infectious diseases e.g. measles, smallpox
        • population may have began to develop some natural resistance or some dieases became less virulent (powerful)
      • most infectious diseases were common in the young and most of decline in death rate occured amongst infants, children and young adults
    • 'diseases of affluence' e.g. heart disease, cancer replaced infectious diseases as main cause of death - affected middle aged and old more than the young
    • Improved nutrition
      • Thomas McKeown (1972)
        • accounts for up to half reduction in death rate; increases resistance to infection and increases survival chance of those who did become infected
        • doesn't explain why females, who receive smaller share of family food supply, lived longer than males;
        • doesn't ecplain why deaths from some infectious diseases e.g. measles rose at time of improving nutrition
    • Medical improvements
      • before 1950s, despire some important innovations, medical improvemnts played almost no part in reduction of deaths from infectious disease
      • after 1950s, death rates reduced; antibiotics, immunisation, NHS set-up in 1948 lead to reduction
    • Smoking and diet
      • Harper
        • greatest fall in death rates are from reduction in no. of people smoking
        • depiste increase in obesity (1/4 in US in 2012) deaths from obesity have been kept low as result of drug therapies
        • we are moving to an 'American health culture' = lifestyles are unhealthy but long lifespan is achieved by use of costly medication
    • Public health measures
      • more effective central + local goverments w/ nessary power to pass and enforce laws = range of improvements in public health + quality of environment
        • improvements in housing, purer drinking water, improved sewage disposal methods, Clean air Acts - reduced air pollution e.g 1952 smog that led to 4,000 deaths
    • Other social changes
      • decline of dangerous manual occupations; smaller familes reduced rate of transmission of infections; greater public knowledge of causes of illnesses; higher incomes allowing for healthier lifestyle
    • Social stratification
      • people living in poorest areas of England die on average seven years earlier than those in richest areas


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Families and households resources »