Reasons for parliamentary vistory

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  • Created by: Hanna Mc
  • Created on: 06-12-16 11:41
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  • The First Civil War
    • Reasons for Royalist defeat
      • Was in areas that were generally poor
      • Clubmen who tried to defent their localities against excess of both armies, particularly hampered Royalist forces who were seen as more exploitive of the local communities.
      • Commissions of Array of dubious legality: some felt Royalists lacked legal weight to make others join forces
      • Their Indecisiveness
        • Charles and the royalists proved to be indecisive in following through on their initial promising start to the war. Not only strategically but also in taking advantage of the greater experience of Charles' generals and greater aristocracy support.
      • Generals
        • In the early months of the war, Charles used influencial local men for generals in their areas hoping they would get support but they had a lack of commitment which weakened the royalist war effort so Charles appointed men with military experience. Whilse this was good for military it sparked conflict within the royalists.
      • Administration
        • The royalist council of war at oxford was initially an effective organisation but it suffered limited authority with commanders in the north and west being basically independent. Charles also decided to set up a separate council at Bristol which removed capable men.
      • Division
        • In the Royalists councils, differing views such as Henrietta Maria and Charles' adviser Edward Hyde) led to incoherent policy because of the lack of leadership from Charles.
          • Prince Rupert also opposed a negotiated settlement until defeat was confirmed at Nasby. While the influence of all three was affected by absences, either in exile or campaign, Maria repeatedly stressed in letters to Charles that it would be a diminution in his honour to negotiate.
        • Hyde advised continuing attempts to settle with parliament, whereas Henrietta maria called for a continued war until total victory was achieved. She, even when in exile, help most of the sway with Charles.
      • Charles as a military leader
        • Charles was a poor war leader. He made himself commander-in-chief. While this may have strengthened his position if he had been able to provide strong leadership and bring his generals and politicians together, it meant he became more responsible for defeat.
          • While he clearly did consult his Council of War, Charles did not listen to nor act on the best advice.
      • Charles agreement with the Catholics
        • In September 1643, Charles signed a cessation with the Catholic Irish rebels who had fought against Protestant rule in October 1641. The troops that were brought over to England from Ireland proved ineffective.
          • Furthermore, many of Charles' supporters were disturbed by his willingness to use Catholics in arms in England.
        • Out of the 603 offices he had as colonels during the war, 117 were Catholics. Charles repeated this mistake by trying to negotiate a second treaty with the Irish Catholic rebels in 1645.
      • Reliance on Foreign Air.
        • Charles' use of Prince Rupert and Maurice left him open to attack.
        • Mote seriously he captured correspondence, which showed that he was negotiating with the French and the Pope. This was great propaganda for parliament when they published some of the letters in 'The Kings Cabinet Opened'
    • Reasons for Parliamentary vistory
      • Parliaments war finance
        • Methods of getting money= direct tax on income, particularly land, confiscation of royalist land, forced loans and a duty or tax on goods.
        • The wartime administration was set up by Pym. Parliament controlled war finances and in November 1642, introduced the Assessment which raised substantial amounts of money.
      • John Pym
        • Pym persuaded members to accept formal alliences and was vital in keeping parliament together.
      • Alliances
        • Scottish covenanters send 21000 men into England to aid parliament . Though this army was generally disappointing it did force Charles to stay North.
          • The Solemn League and covenant, an alliance between the Scottish covenanters and parliament was agreed with the plan to establish Presbyterianism, in return the
      • They held London
        • Propaganda: London was the centre of printing so could produce propaganda
        • Finance: Control of London gave parliament access to resources, especially City loans
        • Manpower: Trained bands were vital at Turnham Green. London was also home to 1/10 of the popularion.
        • Port: London had the largest port.
        • Industry: London was the main industrial centre and was thereby supplier of arms, clothes and shoes
        • Administration: Parliament could take advantage of the already established centre of administration.
      • Control of the Navy
        • Was able to supply its forces and strongholds as well as hamper the supply of royalist areas. It also prevented Charles receiving men or supplies from Europe.
      • Local administration and local communities
        • They set up special local committiees in each county, employing local men who were activatsts and dedicated to the cause.
        • Parliament also managed to control richer areas than the royalists.

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