Reasons for different educational achievement levels

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  • Reasons for different educational acheivement.
    • Class
      • Cultural deprivation      - Lower class students weren't stimulation cultural at a young age
        • Douglas
      • Speech patterns - Two types of language restricted (used by upper and lower) and elaborated code (used by upper)
        • Bernstein
      • Cultural capital - Knowledge and classical understanding that is valued by society (usually help by upper classes)
        • Bordieu
    • Gender
      • Boys - underachievement
        • Decline in labour market - Reduced amount of labour intensive jobs making boys lose motivation and stop trying
          • Mac an Ghaill
        • Peer pressure - it became uncool or girly to care about your education (risked bullying)
          • Francis
        • Laddish culture - Boys messed around and school was dominated by strong males and it was uncool to try
          • Jackson
      • Girls - underachievement
        • Girls receive less attention in class and there was a bias against them
          • Stanworth
        • Sex stereotyping - influences females choices
          • Norman et al
        • Gender inequalities in subject choice - Might feel pressure into taking a subject they don't want to do
          • Colley
      • Girls - acheivement
        • More jobs for women - girls girls more incentive to work hard
          • Francis and skeleton - girls need degrees
        • Changes in education - course work suited girls more
          • Pirie
        • Change in girls aspirations
          • Sharpe
    • Ethnicity
      • Racism  amongst pupils - can effect confidence and make pupils fail
        • Cline et al
      • Ethnocentric curriculum - This means the majority past is taught and their ideas which could lead to ethnic minority pupils to feeling left out.
        • Links in with Bordieus theory of cultural capital
      • Ethnic stereotypes - Black boys seen to be disruptive
        • Wright

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