"Reasoned Arguments cannot account for the amount of evil in the world." Discuss.


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  • "Reasoned Arguments cannot account for the amount of evil in the world." Discuss.
    • Concept of God
      • Creator- Genesis 1-3
      • Omnipotent Omnibenevolent Omniscient Omnipresent
      • Primemover
      • Holy trinity Father, Son and Holy Spirit
    • Inconsistent Triad
      • If God is omnipotent, omnibenvelolent and omniscient then why does evil exist?
        • Therefore God cannot exist if evil does
    • Natural and Moral Evil
      • Natural evil is the apparent malfunctioning of the natural world e.g diseases and natural disasters.
      • Moral Evil is the result of human immorality e.g genocide
      • The devil was created by God so he created evil
        • Genesis 1-3
    • Free Will Defence
      • God gave us free will so created evil
      • Reference to Adam and Eve Genesis 1- Garden of Eden
    • Irenaus Theodicy
      • Humans were created in the image and likeness of God.
      • We are in an immature moral state, though we have the potential for moral perfection.
      • Throughout our lives we change from being human animals to ‘children of God’.
      • This is a choice made after struggle and experience, as we choose God rather than our baser instinct.
      • There are no angels or external forces at work here
      • God brings in suffering for the benefit of humanity.
      • From it we learn positive values, and about the world around us.
      • Criticisms of Irenaus
        • Argued that everyone goes to heaven, so evil goes unpunished which is wrong.
        • If God was loving why does he make us suffer?
        • Innocent people should not suffer or feel pain
    • Augustine Theodicy
      • God is perfect. the world he created reflects that perfection.
      • Humans were created with free will
      • Sin and death entered the world through Adam and Eve, and their disobedience
        • Adam and Eve’s disobedience brought about ‘disharmony’ in both humanity and Creation.The whole of humanity experiences this disharmony because we were all ‘seminally’ present in the loins of Adam.
      • Natural evil is consequence of this disharmony of nature brought about by the Fall.
      • God is justified in not intervening because the suffering is a consequence of human action
      • Criticisms of Augustine
        • If God can be held responsible for the system by which the natural world works, he should be held responsible for the suffering that his system causes.
        • Based on the Bible so Atheist's cannot relate to it
        • Augustine’s theodicy puts all the blame on the first humans yet all suffer. Why should people suffer for the misdemeanours of past generations
        • If the world is perfect why is there evil? God must be evil if it created in likeness of him
        • Genesis 1-3 "it was good" why is there evil if the world was created as "good"
    • Job
      • Job was a wealthy man with a wife and children.
      • God allowed Satan to torment him. took away his wealth and family
      • Job stayed faithful to God and his happiness was returned.
      • Criticisms of Job
        • Why should an innocent man suffer? A loving God would not allow this to happen.
        • God created the devil
          • Genesis 1-3
    • John Hick's Soul Making Theodicy
      • Reformation of the Irenaen theodicy.
      • Highlighted the importance of God allowing humans to develop themselves
      • If God made us perfect, then we would have the goodness of robots.
      • God wants humans to be genuinely loving and therefore gives them free will.
      • counterfactual hypothesis -  If God interfered or became to close, humans would be unable to make a free choice and  wouldn't benefit from the developmental process.

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