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  • Right Realism
    • right realists say that people make a rationale choice to break the law.
      • people aren't forced to break the law
      • the role of the government isn't to eliminate the mythical root cause of crime such as poverty but to punish the criminal
        • people aren't driven to crime through poverty like Merton would say
    • zero tolerance polices
      • JAMES Q WILSON. developed these policies based on the idea that if small crimes go unpunished they will lead to much larger crimes.
      • all crime is as serious as eachother from dropping litter to murder.
      • stop and search policies  brought in with this.
        • black young males are 27x more likely to be stopped and search from reasonable suspicion of the police.
      • in the short term zero tolerance policies worked but the growing resentment for the police made it too difficult for the community to respect the police.
        • these policies led to the Brixton riots.
        • most sociologists state that the impact of zero tolerance policies can still be seen today as the lack of trust between the communities and the police is apparent.
    • the broken window theory
      • Wilson and Kelling said high levels of crime occur when informal social control has broken down as low level antisocial behaviour isn't stopped
      • it is the analogy of a broken window; once one window has smashed the others are soon to follow
      • if low level anti social behaviour isn't prevented then this does not escalate into more serious crimes
    • crime prevention
      • Clarke states that policies and police practices make it difficult to commit crime.
        • neighbourhood watch
      • people will commit crimes when the benefits outweigh the costs
      • Newman introduced the 'defensible space' the designs of streets, houses and shopping centres should be safer
        • this is called target hardening, the idea of improving security and safety
      • evaluation of crime prevention
        • garland argues that crime prevention limits the impact of crime and ignores the root cause of crime.
        • crime prevention strategies leads to crime displacement where the crimes merely move to different areas.
        • alongside crime prevention other actions must take place such as early interventions and programmes that involve the community


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