Foundations Reading

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  • Created on: 14-05-15 14:04
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  • Readings
    • Globalisation
      • Sparke 2009: "An unstoppable process of global integration."
      • Friedmann 1999: Reach around the world faster, farther, deeper and cheaper.
      • Dicken 2004: Globalisation is a problem in the material sense (inequalities) and the rhetorical sense (contested meaning)
      • Le Heron 2009: Capitalist society/ market economy dominates most of the world. Exploitation is key.
        • Capitalism
          • Watts 2009: "Capital is an asset to be mobilised by a group, individual or institution as wealth"
          • Marx 1848: Did not use the term 'capitalism' until the 1870s. Formulation of a sophisticated class system. Though traditionally anti-capitalist, did not hate capitalism- only the inequalities it causes.
          • Sheppard 2009: Capitalism creates struggle and inequality between classes. Promoted the autonomous individual in the workplace and political life (ability to be ones own person).
          • Harvey 2010: Capital is the lifeblood of the body politic. Capitalism not as a 'thing' but as a dynamic process.
          • Modes of Production
            • Feudalism: Formation of a social hierarchy based on surplus agriculture. Surplus enabled a permanent social surplus which then enabled the development of other forms of labour. Based on vassals contracted to work for a feudal lord.
            • Hunter Gatherer: until 10,000BC. Gendered division of labour, small groups of nomadic people. Highly dependent on the environment: small populations to live sustainably. Primitive Communism.
            • Fordism (Faulconridge 2009): Developed in early 1900s, production line. All production takes place in one location. Increased worker productivity, standardis-ation and economies of scale. Mass consumption as a regime of accumulation: self-reproducing demand for goods. Development of a nuclear family, reinforcement of gender roles.
            • Post-Fordism (Faulconridge 2009): Flexible accumulation. Flexibility in workers' skills and functionality of machines, production depends on a network of suppliers who have to respond to changes in demand. Emphasis on high-quality end products. JIT production.
            • Commodity chain: Manufacture -> distribute -> consume
      • Held 1999: "widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnectedness" and "transforms spatial and social relations and transactions"
      • Harvey 1989, 2006: time-space compression allows an easier, quicker, borderless world
      • Swyngedouw 2004: glocalisation, local-global relations. Dismissal of end-state geography ideas of global flattening
    • Capitalism
      • Watts 2009: "Capital is an asset to be mobilised by a group, individual or institution as wealth"
      • Marx 1848: Did not use the term 'capitalism' until the 1870s. Formulation of a sophisticated class system. Though traditionally anti-capitalist, did not hate capitalism- only the inequalities it causes.
      • Sheppard 2009: Capitalism creates struggle and inequality between classes. Promoted the autonomous individual in the workplace and political life (ability to be ones own person).
      • Harvey 2010: Capital is the lifeblood of the body politic. Capitalism not as a 'thing' but as a dynamic process.
      • Modes of Production
        • Feudalism: Formation of a social hierarchy based on surplus agriculture. Surplus enabled a permanent social surplus which then enabled the development of other forms of labour. Based on vassals contracted to work for a feudal lord.
        • Hunter Gatherer: until 10,000BC. Gendered division of labour, small groups of nomadic people. Highly dependent on the environment: small populations to live sustainably. Primitive Communism.
        • Fordism (Faulconridge 2009): Developed in early 1900s, production line. All production takes place in one location. Increased worker productivity, standardis-ation and economies of scale. Mass consumption as a regime of accumulation: self-reproducing demand for goods. Development of a nuclear family, reinforcement of gender roles.
        • Post-Fordism (Faulconridge 2009): Flexible accumulation. Flexibility in workers' skills and functionality of machines, production depends on a network of suppliers who have to respond to changes in demand. Emphasis on high-quality end products. JIT production.
        • Commodity chain: Manufacture -> distribute -> consume
    • Celebrity Ecologies
      • Goodman and Littler 2013: mainstream-ing of ecological concerns. Environment saving star. Greenpeace endorsed by 58 celebrities. Branding of nature. Mutually beneficial relationship.
        • What part does the media play in environment-al degradation and destruction? Supply chain, advertising, commodity: "greening the media"
        • Charismatic Mega Fauna: lions and tigers and bears (oh my!). Celebritised things and places.
    • Branding (Pike 2009)
      • Object of the brand and the process of branding geographical in at least 3 related ways
        • Spatial associations
        • Geographic-ally differentiated and uneven in their represent-ation, manifestation, visibility, fixity and mobility throughout the spaces, places and temporalities of economy, society and polity.
        • Reinforce-ment of economic and social inequalities based on the search for, exploitation and reproduction of economic and social inequalities over time and space.
      • Brands
        • Economic: goods and services
        • Social: collectively produced, circulated and consumed
        • Cultural: entities providing meaning and identities
        • Political: intellectual property, financial assets and traded commodities
      • "You get what you pay for": reduce product purchasing uncertainty
      • Brand names designed to assure the customer of quality and geographical origin ("Fairtrade", "Bournville chocolate")
      • Constructed Imagined Geographies used to sell products via adverts, labels, trademarks ect.
      • Geographies of brands integral to identities
    • Nature
      • Marx: socially constructed concept. Only exists as a contrast to what is not 'natural'
        • Capitalism depends on a false ideology of nature to commodify it.
      • Landscape (Wylie 2014): matters for how we experience and see our worlds in regards to scale, racial issues and uneven development. Represented through the nuclear family, cities pushed to the background. Hetero-normative natures.
      • Robinson 2004: Preservation is for nature, conservation is for humans.
      • Meadows et al 1972: environmental limits to growth: people, resources and population
      • Bruntland Report 1987 (Sustain-ability): we have a common future. Institutional roots of modern environ-mentalism. "Adopt lifestyles to live within the planets ecological means"
        • Rio 1992: Agenda 21. Plan of action, agreement on move towards sustainable development.
        • Johannes-burg 2001: World Summit. Important that this was held in the global south- shift of power. Revive the momentum, broaden stakeholders. Dis-agreement of the role of the private sector in sustainable development. Movement in south African politics to tackle poverty and homeless-ness.
      • Indira Gandhi: Poverty is the biggest pollutor
      • Whatmore 2009: Nature is a geographical imaginary. Human geographers ecplore the ways in which people, technologies, organisms and geo-physicial processes and woven together in the making and remaking of space, place and landscape.
        • Nature is outside of society. Presence of native people actively erased from images of 'nature' (colonial). Humans as part of nature. Expansion of what is perceived as 'natural'.
        • The essence of a thing
        • A material realm untouched by human entity
        • The entire living world, including humans.
      • Swyngedouw 2012: post-political. Abandon the concept of 'nature'. Cities are unsustain-able, capitalism is unsustain-able. "Sustainable" as branding (food, clothes, housing, energy).
        • Caprotti 2010: low carbon economy, cleantech, green technology.
        • In order to achieve sustainable development: revive growth, improve the quality of growth, meet essential needs, sustainable population, conserve resources, re-orientate technology, merge environment and economics.
      • Smith 2008: Society is geared around the accumulation of surplus as security against famine. Generates the development of slavery, class system and social hierarchy, in- equality.
      • Robbins 2004: Political Ecology. Focus on the politics of degradation and marginalis-ation. The existence of political ecologies means tha apolitical ecologies must also exist. Apolitical influenced by Malthusian ideas, idea that these changes are natural in order to keep population in check.
        • Esther Boserup: Necessity is the mother of invention
      • Ginn and Demerrit 2009: views of nature have a colonial heritage. Division of 'civilisation' from nature /natives. Nature exists because it is apart from the other.
    • Identity
      • I think therefore I am: Descartes
      • Identity: socially constructed, chosen, individual
      • Self
        • Katz 2009: identity if fluid, individual, change over time. Different identities create the other. Identity is selected, personal, voluntary.
        • Lacan 2002: "mirror stage" of infancy, discovery and realisation of the self.
        • Defined in relation to the other.
        • Inequality
          • Race: New Orleans 2005, ethnic topography and impact on ethnic minorities. Segregation, unequal treatment and violence. Neo-colonial ideas of white superiority.
          • Gender (Valentine 2009, Foucault 1980, Little 2009) Patriarchal socierty, social hierarchy. Power is male dominated. Unequal pay, violence. Everyday sexism of space.
          • Sexuality (Reggie Yates 2015, Mitchell 2009, Gandy 2012, Browne and Nash 2009, Foucault 1986) Sexualisation of women, gay men viewed as feminine. Patriarchal roots, male 'manly' dominance, phallo-centrism. Extremes (Russia and China) based on the nuclear family, subject to persecution and violence.
          • Class (Marx) Social hierarchy based on wealth, formed around capitalism. Politics often orchestrated to benefit a certain class (eg, Tories vs Labour)
          • Ability (Harvey 1993) Mental or physical disabilities, concept of the 'other'. Inability to consume, cannot participate fully in capitalist society.
          • Wealth: money is power. Ward 2009- spatial inequality (slums).
      • Other
        • Harvey 1993: oppression and hierarchies, some forms of identity "better" than others.
        • Clifford 1988: exotic, Orientalism as the other.
          • Said 2003: critique of orientalism, self identity of the west as superior to the east.
        • Superiority: patriarchal, racial, cultural ect.
        • That which is excluded from the self.
        • Secour 2009: Hierarchal dualism of master/slave, male/female. Hierarchies of race, gender and class, imperial and domestic social relations.
        • Inequality
          • Race: New Orleans 2005, ethnic topography and impact on ethnic minorities. Segregation, unequal treatment and violence. Neo-colonial ideas of white superiority.
          • Gender (Valentine 2009, Foucault 1980, Little 2009) Patriarchal socierty, social hierarchy. Power is male dominated. Unequal pay, violence. Everyday sexism of space.
          • Sexuality (Reggie Yates 2015, Mitchell 2009, Gandy 2012, Browne and Nash 2009, Foucault 1986) Sexualisation of women, gay men viewed as feminine. Patriarchal roots, male 'manly' dominance, phallo-centrism. Extremes (Russia and China) based on the nuclear family, subject to persecution and violence.
          • Class (Marx) Social hierarchy based on wealth, formed around capitalism. Politics often orchestrated to benefit a certain class (eg, Tories vs Labour)
          • Ability (Harvey 1993) Mental or physical disabilities, concept of the 'other'. Inability to consume, cannot participate fully in capitalist society.
          • Wealth: money is power. Ward 2009- spatial inequality (slums).
      • Politics: civil rights, feminist, anti-colonial and anti-war movements. Mobility of new individual and collective possibilities. Rights of identity: LGBTQPA+, gender.
      • Anderson 1983: Identity means not only the aspiration to selfhood bu the assumption of an other.
    • Gay Geographies
      • Miller 2009: extreme prejudice and repression, in the past gay life was restricted to cities. Anonymous, underground. Hetero-normative space, nature as hereto-normative. 'Closet spaces', liminal.
      • 1960s Stonewall Riots- change sttus of gay people in the UK and Canada
      • Gay Ghettos: defense (physical and mental security). Avoidance (low pressure provision of freedom). Preservation (culture, way of life). Attack (political and social struggle).
      • Gandy 2012: Abney Park. International cruising site. Liminal space. Homo cruising amongst the dead. Important site for UK biodiversity and public sex.
      • Browne and Nash 2009: Lesbian Geographies. Hetero-sexuality of feminist geographies. Hierarchal sexualisation of space. Homogenised social category of 'women' without looking at the diversity within that category.
      • Gay men more financially able to seperate temselves within society in a gay village- genered inequality in the workplace
      • Queer Space: Gandy. Foucault 1986. Safe, freedom.
    • Radicalism
      • Pinder 2009: approaches to geography committed to challenging relations of power and oppression and to constructing more socially just, eglatarian and liberating geographies and ways of living.
        • Political Protest: civil rights, Vietnam war, imperialism, poverty, inequality.
        • Anarchist Geography: Kropotkin, Reclus
      • Union of socialist geographers
      • Feminist geographies: social change but critical of gender blindness of othe radical studies.
      • Harvey 1999: Analysis of the capitalist class struggle
      • While it is important to recognise diversity, political change requires diversity
      • Castree 2005: norm-challenging information, bing the undiscussed into discussion. Stray beyond the established perimaters of opinion, render the familiar strange and un-acceptable.
      • Internet provided a new platform for the creation, communication and spread of radical perspectives.
    • Finance
      • Caprotti 2010: activist states can be understood as strategic and active investors in private firms, other states and specific sectors in their own economies. Increasing financial dependency of states, spreading risks across boundaries.
        • State as a geopolitical actor in financial markets- policy making, green technology, green economy.
        • Activist states operate across borders, becmoe active in taking stakes in private firms and other states, invest in other states and reap potential economic and geopolitial benefits.
      • Iceland: DeMcDonald-isation, un-employment, krona became worthless, loan from IMF.
      • Green Technology: low carbon/ green collar. Investment in green technologies, industry and services. Green economy is not always low carbon. Activist states directly involved in funding.
      • Neoliberalism: internationalisation of capital and the globalisation of markets. Economic/political system. Deregulation of national economic transactions, privatisation of state owned enterprises and state funded services (NHS, water).
        • Treatment of public welfare spending as a cost of international production.
        • Crisis of neoliberalism: policy and finacial landscape becomes hybridised. States focus on capital rather than welfare- link of politics and capitalism.
    • World/Global Cities
      • Johnston 2009: a world city is a major node in the organisation of the world economy.
        • "Great cities in which a dis-proportionate part of the world business is conducted."
      • Friedmann 1986, 1996: world cities are global control centres. Intimacy between world cities and globalisation.
      • Global Cities of Today: New York, London, Tokyo, Paris, L.A, Singapore, Shanghai, Beijing, Seoul, Sydney.
        • Political, cultural, human, business and information. Centres for knowledge, finance, media, population.
          • Most emerging global cities in the global south.
      • Sassen 1991: World city = centre for trade, created by geography rather than economy. Global city = centre for economy, digital transfers, stock exchanges.
    • De-naturalising disasters
      • Smith 2006: "There is no such thing as a natural disaster"
      • Hurricane Katrina August 2005: most issues caused by the aftermath of the hurricane ie: flooding
        • Majority of the population evacuated. 1833 known to have died. 80% of the city flooded.
        • City built on low-lying flood plain with drained wetlands. Canalisation, lack of sediment, reduced levees, increased bed sediment increased river level. Uneven evacuation- ethnic topography. Environ-mental racism.
      • "Disasters" are only disasters because they involve humans.
        • Causes: causes linked to global environmental change. Sea level rise could increase the likelihood/impact of disasters. Natural causes are influenced by social processes.
        • Vulnerability: access to wealth, insfrastructure, stability.
        • Preparedness: institutional, too budy to help. Bottom up or top down? Response: Political ecology- who suffers? Who gains? Reconstruction: positive future or deepened inequality? Top down is different to bottom up. Proifts to be made from disasters. Essential to emphasis the social.
    • Monetising Pollution
      • Social value, environmental value, intristic value all add up to the economic value of the environment.
      • Green economy: value, commod-ification, market environ-mentalism (Caprotti 2010)
      • Nature is socially constructed as a commodity. Chinese wetlands: culturally constructed as worthless, sterile environment. Contrast to the UK where these environments are valuable.
      • Carbon markets: commod-ification of carbon, purchasing the right to pollute.
    • Humanism
      • Gregory 2009: Places human faculties (reason, consciousness and the like) at the centre of human action in order to account for and inform conduct.
        • Perception of what is 'right' and 'wrong'
      • Central place to uniquely human capacities: conscious-ness, critical reflection, creativity, self awareness.
      • Philosophical- existentialism. Sensitivity to the barbarism of our times.
      • Landsape, power and privilege: "human subject" (typically heterosexual masculine and white, though unmarked class)
      • Post-Humanism is critical of anthro-pocentrism, admits non-human actors to the prodution of 'human'. Spaces of exception, sub-human. Worthy or protection.
        • Post Humanism
          • Emphasises the impurities involved in being or becoming human.
          • Humanism supposes that humans with their capacities for rationality, conscious-ness, soul, ingenuity, language and so on, stand out at the centre of social action and can transcend the natural realm.
          • Insists that 'human' qualities are achieved through the help of many others, including non-humans.
          • Politicisation of the technologies of life- intellectual disputes, food scares, organ harvesting, genetic profiling, biopolitical controversies.
      • Humanism supposes that humans with their capacities for rationality, conscious-ness, soul, ingenuity, language and so on, stand out at the centre of social action and can transcend the natural realm.
  • The Hydrosocial Cycle
    • Scarcity of water is actively produced. Commodity fetish, social relations embedded within a commodity. Multitude of social, environmental, economic and political relations.
    • Money = Water, Poverty = Disease.
    • Readings
      • Globalisation
        • Sparke 2009: "An unstoppable process of global integration."
        • Friedmann 1999: Reach around the world faster, farther, deeper and cheaper.
        • Dicken 2004: Globalisation is a problem in the material sense (inequalities) and the rhetorical sense (contested meaning)
        • Le Heron 2009: Capitalist society/ market economy dominates most of the world. Exploitation is key.
          • Held 1999: "widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnectedness" and "transforms spatial and social relations and transactions"
          • Harvey 1989, 2006: time-space compression allows an easier, quicker, borderless world
          • Swyngedouw 2004: glocalisation, local-global relations. Dismissal of end-state geography ideas of global flattening
        • Celebrity Ecologies
          • Goodman and Littler 2013: mainstream-ing of ecological concerns. Environment saving star. Greenpeace endorsed by 58 celebrities. Branding of nature. Mutually beneficial relationship.
            • What part does the media play in environment-al degradation and destruction? Supply chain, advertising, commodity: "greening the media"
            • Charismatic Mega Fauna: lions and tigers and bears (oh my!). Celebritised things and places.
        • Branding (Pike 2009)
          • Object of the brand and the process of branding geographical in at least 3 related ways
            • Spatial associations
            • Geographic-ally differentiated and uneven in their represent-ation, manifestation, visibility, fixity and mobility throughout the spaces, places and temporalities of economy, society and polity.
            • Reinforce-ment of economic and social inequalities based on the search for, exploitation and reproduction of economic and social inequalities over time and space.
          • Brands
            • Economic: goods and services
            • Social: collectively produced, circulated and consumed
            • Cultural: entities providing meaning and identities
            • Political: intellectual property, financial assets and traded commodities
          • "You get what you pay for": reduce product purchasing uncertainty
          • Brand names designed to assure the customer of quality and geographical origin ("Fairtrade", "Bournville chocolate")
          • Constructed Imagined Geographies used to sell products via adverts, labels, trademarks ect.
          • Geographies of brands integral to identities
        • Nature
          • Marx: socially constructed concept. Only exists as a contrast to what is not 'natural'
            • Capitalism depends on a false ideology of nature to commodify it.
          • Landscape (Wylie 2014): matters for how we experience and see our worlds in regards to scale, racial issues and uneven development. Represented through the nuclear family, cities pushed to the background. Hetero-normative natures.
          • Robinson 2004: Preservation is for nature, conservation is for humans.
          • Meadows et al 1972: environmental limits to growth: people, resources and population
          • Bruntland Report 1987 (Sustain-ability): we have a common future. Institutional roots of modern environ-mentalism. "Adopt lifestyles to live within the planets ecological means"
            • Rio 1992: Agenda 21. Plan of action, agreement on move towards sustainable development.
            • Johannes-burg 2001: World Summit. Important that this was held in the global south- shift of power. Revive the momentum, broaden stakeholders. Dis-agreement of the role of the private sector in sustainable development. Movement in south African politics to tackle poverty and homeless-ness.
          • Indira Gandhi: Poverty is the biggest pollutor
          • Whatmore 2009: Nature is a geographical imaginary. Human geographers ecplore the ways in which people, technologies, organisms and geo-physicial processes and woven together in the making and remaking of space, place and landscape.
            • Nature is outside of society. Presence of native people actively erased from images of 'nature' (colonial). Humans as part of nature. Expansion of what is perceived as 'natural'.
            • The essence of a thing
            • A material realm untouched by human entity
            • The entire living world, including humans.
          • Swyngedouw 2012: post-political. Abandon the concept of 'nature'. Cities are unsustain-able, capitalism is unsustain-able. "Sustainable" as branding (food, clothes, housing, energy).
            • Caprotti 2010: low carbon economy, cleantech, green technology.
            • In order to achieve sustainable development: revive growth, improve the quality of growth, meet essential needs, sustainable population, conserve resources, re-orientate technology, merge environment and economics.
          • Smith 2008: Society is geared around the accumulation of surplus as security against famine. Generates the development of slavery, class system and social hierarchy, in- equality.
          • Robbins 2004: Political Ecology. Focus on the politics of degradation and marginalis-ation. The existence of political ecologies means tha apolitical ecologies must also exist. Apolitical influenced by Malthusian ideas, idea that these changes are natural in order to keep population in check.
            • Esther Boserup: Necessity is the mother of invention
          • Ginn and Demerrit 2009: views of nature have a colonial heritage. Division of 'civilisation' from nature /natives. Nature exists because it is apart from the other.
        • Identity
          • I think therefore I am: Descartes
          • Identity: socially constructed, chosen, individual
          • Self
            • Katz 2009: identity if fluid, individual, change over time. Different identities create the other. Identity is selected, personal, voluntary.
            • Lacan 2002: "mirror stage" of infancy, discovery and realisation of the self.
            • Defined in relation to the other.
          • Other
            • Harvey 1993: oppression and hierarchies, some forms of identity "better" than others.
            • Clifford 1988: exotic, Orientalism as the other.
              • Said 2003: critique of orientalism, self identity of the west as superior to the east.
            • Superiority: patriarchal, racial, cultural ect.
            • That which is excluded from the self.
            • Secour 2009: Hierarchal dualism of master/slave, male/female. Hierarchies of race, gender and class, imperial and domestic social relations.
          • Politics: civil rights, feminist, anti-colonial and anti-war movements. Mobility of new individual and collective possibilities. Rights of identity: LGBTQPA+, gender.
          • Anderson 1983: Identity means not only the aspiration to selfhood bu the assumption of an other.
        • Gay Geographies
          • Miller 2009: extreme prejudice and repression, in the past gay life was restricted to cities. Anonymous, underground. Hetero-normative space, nature as hereto-normative. 'Closet spaces', liminal.
          • 1960s Stonewall Riots- change sttus of gay people in the UK and Canada
          • Gay Ghettos: defense (physical and mental security). Avoidance (low pressure provision of freedom). Preservation (culture, way of life). Attack (political and social struggle).
          • Gandy 2012: Abney Park. International cruising site. Liminal space. Homo cruising amongst the dead. Important site for UK biodiversity and public sex.
          • Browne and Nash 2009: Lesbian Geographies. Hetero-sexuality of feminist geographies. Hierarchal sexualisation of space. Homogenised social category of 'women' without looking at the diversity within that category.
          • Gay men more financially able to seperate temselves within society in a gay village- genered inequality in the workplace
          • Queer Space: Gandy. Foucault 1986. Safe, freedom.
        • Radicalism
          • Pinder 2009: approaches to geography committed to challenging relations of power and oppression and to constructing more socially just, eglatarian and liberating geographies and ways of living.
            • Political Protest: civil rights, Vietnam war, imperialism, poverty, inequality.
            • Anarchist Geography: Kropotkin, Reclus
          • Union of socialist geographers
          • Feminist geographies: social change but critical of gender blindness of othe radical studies.
          • Harvey 1999: Analysis of the capitalist class struggle
          • While it is important to recognise diversity, political change requires diversity
          • Castree 2005: norm-challenging information, bing the undiscussed into discussion. Stray beyond the established perimaters of opinion, render the familiar strange and un-acceptable.
          • Internet provided a new platform for the creation, communication and spread of radical perspectives.
        • Finance
          • Caprotti 2010: activist states can be understood as strategic and active investors in private firms, other states and specific sectors in their own economies. Increasing financial dependency of states, spreading risks across boundaries.
            • State as a geopolitical actor in financial markets- policy making, green technology, green economy.
            • Activist states operate across borders, becmoe active in taking stakes in private firms and other states, invest in other states and reap potential economic and geopolitial benefits.
          • Iceland: DeMcDonald-isation, un-employment, krona became worthless, loan from IMF.
          • Green Technology: low carbon/ green collar. Investment in green technologies, industry and services. Green economy is not always low carbon. Activist states directly involved in funding.
          • Neoliberalism: internationalisation of capital and the globalisation of markets. Economic/political system. Deregulation of national economic transactions, privatisation of state owned enterprises and state funded services (NHS, water).
            • Treatment of public welfare spending as a cost of international production.
            • Crisis of neoliberalism: policy and finacial landscape becomes hybridised. States focus on capital rather than welfare- link of politics and capitalism.
        • World/Global Cities
          • Johnston 2009: a world city is a major node in the organisation of the world economy.
            • "Great cities in which a dis-proportionate part of the world business is conducted."
          • Friedmann 1986, 1996: world cities are global control centres. Intimacy between world cities and globalisation.
          • Global Cities of Today: New York, London, Tokyo, Paris, L.A, Singapore, Shanghai, Beijing, Seoul, Sydney.
            • Political, cultural, human, business and information. Centres for knowledge, finance, media, population.
              • Most emerging global cities in the global south.
          • Sassen 1991: World city = centre for trade, created by geography rather than economy. Global city = centre for economy, digital transfers, stock exchanges.
        • De-naturalising disasters
          • Smith 2006: "There is no such thing as a natural disaster"
          • Hurricane Katrina August 2005: most issues caused by the aftermath of the hurricane ie: flooding
            • Majority of the population evacuated. 1833 known to have died. 80% of the city flooded.
            • City built on low-lying flood plain with drained wetlands. Canalisation, lack of sediment, reduced levees, increased bed sediment increased river level. Uneven evacuation- ethnic topography. Environ-mental racism.
          • "Disasters" are only disasters because they involve humans.
            • Causes: causes linked to global environmental change. Sea level rise could increase the likelihood/impact of disasters. Natural causes are influenced by social processes.
            • Vulnerability: access to wealth, insfrastructure, stability.
            • Preparedness: institutional, too budy to help. Bottom up or top down? Response: Political ecology- who suffers? Who gains? Reconstruction: positive future or deepened inequality? Top down is different to bottom up. Proifts to be made from disasters. Essential to emphasis the social.
        • Monetising Pollution
          • Social value, environmental value, intristic value all add up to the economic value of the environment.
          • Green economy: value, commod-ification, market environ-mentalism (Caprotti 2010)
          • Nature is socially constructed as a commodity. Chinese wetlands: culturally constructed as worthless, sterile environment. Contrast to the UK where these environments are valuable.
          • Carbon markets: commod-ification of carbon, purchasing the right to pollute.
        • Humanism
          • Gregory 2009: Places human faculties (reason, consciousness and the like) at the centre of human action in order to account for and inform conduct.
            • Perception of what is 'right' and 'wrong'
          • Central place to uniquely human capacities: conscious-ness, critical reflection, creativity, self awareness.
          • Philosophical- existentialism. Sensitivity to the barbarism of our times.
          • Landsape, power and privilege: "human subject" (typically heterosexual masculine and white, though unmarked class)
          • Post-Humanism is critical of anthro-pocentrism, admits non-human actors to the prodution of 'human'. Spaces of exception, sub-human. Worthy or protection.
            • Post Humanism
              • Emphasises the impurities involved in being or becoming human.
              • Insists that 'human' qualities are achieved through the help of many others, including non-humans.
              • Politicisation of the technologies of life- intellectual disputes, food scares, organ harvesting, genetic profiling, biopolitical controversies.
      • South Africa; free basic water policy to provide a level of water to each household- uneven, flawed system.
      • Hydrological cycle: Evaporation / Discharge / Precipitation / Interception / Infiltration / Recharge / Discharge
      • Big Water: dam construction, blue water loked into the landscape. Latest focus on desalination to provide enough freshwater. Population expected to increase by 2 billion.
        • Everyday water: conventions, habits, expectations, consumption, conservation.
    • Monetising Fear
      • Monetisation of mobility and fear, more evident since 9/11 terrorist attacks
      • Security industry based upon making money out of fear. Used to justify restrictions on mobility. Groups are percieved as threats. "Polluting the urban landscape"
      • Opposition: place hacking. Urban exploration, behind the scenes. Breaking down the socially constructed boundaries, re-appropriating spaces.

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