Periodic table and Bonding

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  • Periodic Table
    • The periodic table lists all the known elements
    • It has horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called groups
    • The group number tells you how many outer electrons the atom has
    • The number of outer electrons in the atom determines how an element reacts
    • The periodic table lists the elements in order of atomic number
    • Noble gases are unreactive because they have full outer shells
    • Eight in a shell
      • Atoms with fewer than eight outer electrons react in ways that give them a stable group of eight in their outer shell.
      • In a water molecule, an oxygen atom needs 2 more electrons to have eight in its outer shell
      • A hydrogen atom needs one more electron to become stable
      • Oxygen forms 2 covalent bonds, one with each of 2 hydrogen atoms. This way all the atoms achieve a noble gas configuration
      • To form an ionic bond in sodium chloride the chloride atom gains an electron to get an outer shell of eight
      • It is now a negatively charged chloride ion. The electron comes from the sodium atom. This has 8 electrons, so it is stable.

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