Reactions of Carbonyls

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  • Reactions of Carbonyls
    • Oxidation Reactions
      • Fehling's/Benedict's Solution
        • Ketones do not react
        • Aldehydes oxidise to a carboxylic acid and a red/brown precipitate forms
      • Tollens' Reagent
        • Ketones do not react
        • Aldehydes oxidise to form a carboxylic acid. A silver mirror forms on the test tube
      • Potassium Dichromate (VI)
        • Ketones do not oxidise
        • Aldehydes oxidise to a carboxylic acid
    • Reduction Reactions
      • Ketones will reduce to a secondary alcohol with LiAlH4
      • Aldehydes reduce to a primary alcohol wit LiAlH4
    • Addition Reactions
      • Both aldehydes and ketones undergo addition reactions with hydrogen cyanide. The C=O bond is attacked
    • The Iodoform Reaction
      • Ketones react with the iodine to make triiodo-ketone and then reacts with the alkali to form triiodomethane
      • The only aldehyde to react with iodine is ethanol because it contains a methyl group next to the carbonyl group
    • 2,4-DNP (Condensation)
      • This is a red/orange solid that both aldehydes and ketones react with to form yellow crystalline solids.
      • Compounds can be identified using this reaction as the boiling point are specific to chemicals
      • Water is eliminated

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