Rates of Reaction

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  • Amount of product formed Divided by Time
    • Rates of Reaction
      • Increased by: Temperature Concentration Pressure Surface Area Catalyst
        • Concentration (Liquids): More particles of reactant so more likely to react
        • Surface Area: More surface to react with so there would be more frequent collisions
        • Pressure (Gases): Less space so more likely to have successful collisions
        • Tempertature: Particles have more energy to reach activation level so move more and therefore collide more
        • Catalyst: Will lower the activation energy so more particles will have minimum energy to successfully collide
          • They have a large surface area to be effective as possible
          • They can be expensive but do not need replacing very often
            • Can be reused as do not get used up in the reaction
              • It can reduce the energy and time needed for reactions so reduces cost and environmental impact (Resources and pollution)
          • Some catalysts metals are toxic and could be harmful if get into the enviroment
      • The particles must collide with enough energy to react. This is called the ACTIVATION ENERGY
        • The likelihood of reactions occurring depends on: The number of successful collision and The number of particles with activation energy
          • Successful collision is the difference between bumping and reacting
            • So to increase the rate of reaction we must either: Increase the likelihood of successful collision or Increase the number of particles with activation energy
  • Much research- Nanoparticles or enzymes as catalysts
    • Enzymes are biological catalysts that work at room temperature so could reduce energy usage further

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