Rates and Energy 1

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  • Created by: Catherine
  • Created on: 22-04-13 20:15
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  • Rates and Energy 1
    • How fast?
      • rate of reaction measures speed of reaction
        • amount of reactant used, or amount of product produced
    • Collision Theory and Surface area
      • collision theory
        • reactions can only happen if particles collide
          • with enough energy to change into new substances
            • minimum energy needed to react is activation energy
        • factors increasing collisions and energy
          • temperature
          • concentration of solutions
          • pressure of gases
          • surface area of solids
    • Catalysts
      • change rate of chemical reactions
      • mainly used to speed up reactions
      • lower activation energy so more collisions result in reaction
      • solids used in powdered forms
        • this gives them large surface area to make them more effective
      • work only with one type of reaction
        • different catalysts needed for different reactions
    • temperature
      • increases speed of particles
      • particles will collide with more energy
        • increases rate of reaction
      • small change in temp has large effect on reaction rate
      • we refrigerate and freeze food to slow down reactions
    • concentration and pressure
      • more particles in the same volume
      • particles are closer together so collide more often
        • more particles in the same volume
      • increases pressure of gas puts more molecules in same volume
        • molecules collide more frequently
          • concentration and pressure
            • particles are closer together so collide more often
              • increases pressure of gas puts more molecules in same volume
                • molecules collide more frequently
        • Catalysts in action
          • economical because rarely need replacement
          • mainly used in industrial processes
          • some catalysts could cause harm to the envoironment
          • nanoparticles could provide efficient new catalysts
            • could further reduce energy costs
        • Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions
          • exothermic
            • transfer energy to the surroundings
              • surroundings heat up
            • e.g. combustion
              • e.g. oxidation
                • e.g. neutralisation
          • endothermic
            • take in energy from surroundings
              • surroundings cool down
                • thermal decomposition
        • reversible reactions
          • equal but opppositite energy transfers
          • exothermic in one direction and endothermic in other
            • e.g. blue copper sulfate crystals heated endothermic
              • water added is exothermic
        • Using energy transfers
          • handwarmersand self heating cans use exothermic reactions
          • medical cold packs use endothermic reactions


      lisa linsdell

      Very detailed mind map for this topic, colour coordinated, Good test yourself facility. 


      thanks, this will be really useful for revision :)


      Very detailed and all the basic information needed can be found in the mind map.This will be very good for revision.

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