Rates of Reaction

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  • Rates of Reaction
    • Temperature
      • Kinetic energy of particles increases as temperature increases
        • Particals are moving faster and therefore are more likely to collide
          • More successful collisions
        • Particles collide with more energy (equal to or  greater than Ea
          • More successful collisions
      • Freezing food slows down reactions
    • Concentration
      • If concentrationof reactant increases there are more particles in reactant mixture
        • more successful collisions are likely to occur with equal to or greater than Ea
    • Surface Area
      • If a reactant is solid than SA increases when pieces are smaller
      • The greater the SA, the more likely successful collisions will be because more particles are in contact with reactant
    • Pressure
      • Only relavent when reactants are gasses
        • Molecules are moved closer together more successful collisions
    • Catalysts
      • Chemicals that increase the ROR but are not used up or chemically changed
        • Provide an alternative pathway for a reaction which lowers the Ea so more successful collisions can occur
        • Often expensive metals such as gold and platinum
          • Still often cheaper than paying for energy (high temperaturesand pressures)
            • Good for environment because fossil fuel would be burnt otherwise
              • Also stops CO2 entering atmosphere
      • Zeolites
        • Fine catalyst powders used in fractional  distillation
      • Industry
        • Haber process
          • Reactants: N2 & H2 gas Catalyst: Iron    Product: Ammonia
        • Oswald process
          • Reactants:        -Ammonia and O2.      Catalyst: Platinum.       Product: Nitric Acid
        • Making margarine
          • Reactants: Vegetable oil and H2    Catalyst: Nickel   Product: Margarine
      • Catalytic converter= fitted to vehical exhausts to reduce pollutants released
      • Nano sized particles could reduce energy costs because they are extremely small and therefore less catalyst is required
    • On a rate graph, steeper line = faster reaction
      • Height reached on a rate graph shows reacting quantities
    • Ea= minimum amount of energy required by colliding particles for a reaction to occur
    • As time increases rate decreases
    • Endothermic=a reaction that takes energy in from suroundings
      • Medical cold pack
    • Exothermic=areaction that gives out energy to surroundings
      • Hand warmer
    • Average ROR=   amount of reactant used or product formed / time
      • Or. 1/time


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