Rate of Reaction

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  • Rate of Reaction
    • What does the rate of a chemical reaction tell us?
      • How fast reactants turn into products
    • What are the two ways we can find out the rate of reaction?
      • Measure the amount of product made or measure how quickly the reactant is used up.
    • What are the 5 factors that affect rate of reaction?
      • Temperature, surface area, pressure, concentration an presence of a catalyst.
    • Describe the practicals for the 3 rate experiments:
      • 1)Weigh all components on mass balance, add reactant 2 to reactant 1, take weight at time intervals as gas is lost to calculate rate.
      • record amount of gas given off at regular intervals to calculate rate.
      • record time for substance to become opaque to test different rates
    • What is the rate of reaction equation?
      • rate=amount of reactant used up/time
      • rate=amount of product made/time
    • Describe the collision theory:
      • All substances are made up of particles that move, some faster than others. In order to react, they must collide with enough energy.
    • What is activation energy?
      • The minimum amount of energy a particle must collide with another particle with, to have a successful collision.
    • What are the two things that we must increase the chance of for reactions to become more likely?
      • Collisions and energy.
    • What is it called when a particle reacts with another particle?
      • A successful collision.
    • Why does surface area affect the rate of reaction? Describe the collision theory:
      • The more particles of a substance exposed to the reactant, the more are capable of reacting, which increases the amount of reactions and therefor the amount of successful reactions.
    • Describe, using particle/collision theory, what increasing the temperature does to the reaction rate:
      • Higher the temperature, the faster the rate of reaction, because the more energy is in the particles, they have more kinetic energy and move more quickly, increasing successful collisions, as they have more energy and more collisions.
    • Describe how pressure affects the rate of reaction:
      • The more compressed, the more particles in a space. this increases chance of successful collisions.
    • How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?
      • The more concentrated a substance is, the faster the rate of reaction. There are more particles in the solution, which increases the chances of collisions between particles, increasing the chance of successful collisions.
    • What is the definition of a catalyst?
      • A substance that speeds up the rate of reaction without being used up
    • Why are catalysts often powders?
      • To give them the largest possible surface area.
    • What is an independent variable?
      • The thing you change during an experiment.
    • What is a dependent variable?
      • The thing you are observing or measuring
    • What is a controlled variable?
      • The thing that you keep the same during an  experiment.
    • Why are catalysts used in industry?
      • Increase the rate of reaction, same amount of product more quickly, reduces fossil fuels and waste gasses, better for the environment and saves money.
    • What are traditional catalysts made of?
      • Usually metals.
    • Name some advantages and disadvantages of catalysts:
      • -Transition metal catalysts often used in industry are toxic.
      • Save the environment; less fossil fuels and emmisions
      • Save costs in industry
    • What is an exothermic reaction? Give some examples:
      • Where energy goes down as it is released to the environment, so the temperature goes up.
    • What is an endothermic reaction? Give some examples:
      • Where energy increases as it take energy in from the surroundings, causing a temperature decrease in the surroundings.
      • e.g.thermal decomposition.

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