Radio-activity

Mindmap of radio-activity

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  • Created by: Emily
  • Created on: 01-07-13 15:22
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  • Radioactivity
    • What is it?
      • Emitting particles or waves from a nucleus
        • The Particles or waves that are emitted are called radiation
        • Radiation is used for some electromagnetic waves which have not come from radioactive decay
          • The Particles or waves that are emitted are called radiation
      • Sometimes nucleus's of atoms are unstable. A change will occur to make it more stable.
        • This is called decay
          • Emitting particles or waves from a nucleus
            • Radiation is used for some electromagnetic waves which have not come from radioactive decay
            • It is a random process
            • It gives out heat
      • What are the 3 types of radio-activity
        • Alpha
          • After an alpha particle has been emitted, the atomic number of the atom will have changed
          • It is a helium nucleus (i.e. a helium atom without the electrons
          • Causes the most ionisation
            • loss/gain of electrons to form ions
          • It is a proton
        • Beta
          • It is an electron from the nucleus
          • One of the neutrons turns into a proton ( which stays in the nucleus) and an electron ( which is emitted as a beta particle
        • Gamma
          • It is a wave rather than a particle
          • It is a very energetic electromagnetic wave
          • Causes the least ionisation
        • These are emitted from the nucleus
      • Usea of Alpha, Beta and Gamma
        • Gamma
          • Most penetrating ionising radiation
          • Medical tracers
          • Doctors follow process of the tracer through the body, which can be very helpful in diagnosing some medical conditions
        • Beta
          • Treat patients with cancer
          • The beta particles damage the cancer cells close to the radiation source,
            • Without causing too much damage to the healthy cells nearby
            • Not very useful as medical tracers
              • Beta particles do not travel far in human tissue so cannot be easily detected outside the human body
          • Measure thicness of paper
            • If the paper is measured physically, the paper risks being teared
            • If the  paper is too thick, the number of beta particles which reach the detector will reduce
            • If the paper is too thin, the number of beta particles will increase
        • Alpha
          • Smoke detectors
            • Levels of charged particles in the air measured by an electronic circuit.
            • The Alpha particle source ionises the air surrounding it
            • When smoke enters the detector, it neutralises the charged particles
              • The detector picks up the change and the alarm goes off

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