Queen, Government, and Religion

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  • Created by: ash8642
  • Created on: 15-04-18 11:17
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  • Queen, Government, and Religion
    • Society and Government, 1558
      • Ruling supported by Privy Council
        • Around 20 of her most trusted counsellors
      • Parliament made up of nobility and gentry
        • Also enforced law and order
      • Parliament only met when Elizabeth summoned it
        • She avoided this - she only summoned 13 times in her reign
      • Local Government posts were unpaid
        • Many volunteered to increase their power and influence
      • 90% of the population lived rural areas
        • However, towns and cities were rapidly growing
      • Economy was dominated by agriculture
      • Poverty was a major problem
    • Challenges to the Monarchy
      • Third in line - no one thought she would be Queen
      • Placed under house-arrest for suspected conspiracy against her half-sister
      • Catholics declared Elizabeth illegitimate
        • Divorce was illegal
        • Henry's marriage to Anne was not valid
      • Unnatural for a woman to be in charge
        • Mary I's reign had been unsuccessful
        • Thought women should be under men
        • Expected Elizabeth to be a figurehead
      • Marriage and Succession
        • No close family
        • Expected to produce an heir
        • Reluctant to marry - would lose her power and freedom
      • Money
        • £300,000 in debt when Elizabeth came to the throne
        • Income was only £286,667
        • Taxes were unpopular and had to be agreed
    • Challenges at home / from abroad
      • War with France
        • Mary I had started the war
        • French conquered Calais
        • War ended in 1559
      • Scotland
        • Controlled by Catholic France
        • Rule was unpopular in Scotland
        • French disliked Elizabeth as she was Protestant
        • Threat that France would invade from Scotland
        • John Knox rebelled French rule and appealed to England for support
        • French defeated and forced to leave Scotland
    • Religious Divisions
      • Protestant Reformation
        • Questioned Pope
        • Translated the Bible
        • Thought Churches should be plain and simple
      • Henry VIII broke away from Catholicism
        • Wanted a divorce which the Pope refused
        • Made himself head of CofE
        • Didn't try to reform the English Church
      • Edward VI wanted Protestantism
        • Made churches and services simplier
        • Statues and decorations removed
        • Priests weren't allowed to wear elaborate vestments
        • Services in English
      • Mary I restored Catholicism
        • She was a devote Catholic
        • Removed Edward's reforms
        • Protestants harshly persecuted
    • The Religious Settlement, 1559
      • Act of Supremacy
        • Elizabeth became Supreme Governor of CofE
        • Those holding public office to swear Oath of Supremecy
        • Clergy would be punished if disloyal
        • Appealed to Protestants and less-strict Catholics
      • Act of Uniformity
        • Reforms
          • Going to church was compulsory
            • Fined 1 shilling per absence
          • Book of Common Prayer
          • All parishes to have a copy of the Bible in English
        • Concessions
          • Wording of the Communion Service was deliberately vague
          • Churches allowed some decorations
          • Certain vestments allowed
      • Royal Injunctions
        • Reinforce Acts
        • Instructions on how to worship
        • Licence to preach
        • Appealed to Protestants and most Catholics
    • Challenges to the Religious Settlement
      • Puritans
        • They hoped Elizabeth would make further reforms
        • Vestment Controversy - Priests wouldn't wear the surplice
        • Puritans didn't like the crucifix - was seen as idolism
      • Nobility
        • Large proportion were still Catholic
        • Nobility was influencial outside of South-East
        • Risk that they could overthrow
        • Weren't forced to attend services
      • France and Spain
        • Risk of either country reversing the settlement
        • Threat of French invasion faded with Wars of Religion
        • Spain faced with revolt in Netherlands
    • Mary, Queen of Scots
      • Strong claim to English throne
        • Mary was Elizabth's second cousin
        • Catholic, so she was supported
        • Elizabeth refused to make Mary heir for fear of plots
      • Mary flees to England, 1568
        • Unhappy marriage to Lord Darnley
        • Darney was murdered in 1567
          • Was thought that her and the Earl of Bothwell were behind it
        • Mary marries Bothwell
        • Unpopular with Scottish nobels, who rebelled
        • Nobels forced her to abdicate
      • Mary was imprisioned
        • Mary hoped Elizabeth would help her regain control of her throne - Elizabeth would not
        • Elizabeth imprisioned her to investigate Darnley's murder
        • Elizabeth didn't want a guilty or not-guilty verdict
        • No verdict was reached - Mary kept imprisioned

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