Punishment - reduction & retribution

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  • Punishment
    • Reduction
      • Deterrence - punishing individual discourages them from future offending
      • Rehabilitation - idea that punishment can be used to reform or change offenders so they no longer offender
      • Incapacitation - use of punishment to remove then offenders capacity to offend again
      • This justification is an instrumental one- punishment is a means to an end
    • Retribution
      • Means 'paying back'
      • Its a justification for punishing crimes hat have already been committed rather than preventing future crimes
      • Based on idea that offenders deserve to be punished & society is entitled to take its revenge on the offender
      • This is an expressive rather than instrumental view of punishment - it expresses society's outrage


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