Public Health

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  • Public Health
    • Theories
      • Contagion
        • Disease  caused by the people who already have the disease
        • Qurantine the solution then
        • Failed- people living in the same house did not all get a disease
      • Miasma
        • Popular theory
        • Believed by Chadwick- "All smell is disease"
        • Disease from dying mattr in the air
          • This explained, to upper/middle class why poor people got cholera
        • Made sense for a lot of people- refused to believe anything else
      • Germ Theory
        • Disease caused by micro-organims
        • Public refused to believe in science
        • Louis Pasteur- eventually proven by Dr. Robert Koch in 1860s
        • Snow's discovery supported this
        • Disliked by mnay, includes EC
    • People
      • Dr. Neil Arnott
        • Same as EC
      • Dr. James Kay-Shuttlesworth
        • Same as EC
      • Dr.John Snow
        • Discovered that cholera was waterborne
      • Dr. Southwood Smith
        • Same as EC
      • Joseph Bazalgette
        • designed London's sewers
      • Edwin Chadwick
        • PHA Act 1848 and CBOH
      • John Simon- Saniatation Act 1866
    • Dirty diseases
      • Typhoid
        • Separated from typhus in 1969
        • Prince Albert died 1861 from it
      • Typhus
        • Hit in 1837, 1839, 1847
        • Known as Irish fever
      • Cholera
        • Vibro- bacteria
        • Water and food borne- contaminated only
        • 4 outbreaks
          • 1831-2: 32,000
          • 1853-4: 20,000
          • 1848-9: 62,000
          • 1866-7: 14,000
    • Legislation/reports
      • Public Health Act 1848
        • 1st Government action
        • Set up the Central Board of Health
        • Local boards could set up in two circumstances
          • If death rate was more than 23 per 1000 (nat. average was 21 per 1000)
          • If 10% of ratepayers wanted one
        • Permissive- not mandatory
      • Public Health Act and Local Government Act 1866
        • Disbanded the Central Board of Health
        • Its powers transferred to the Privy Council
        • Disbanded because Chadwick was v. unpopular
      • Public Health Act 1875
        • Culmination of all previous acts
        • Made every mandatory
      • Royal Commission
        • Official Government committee on PH
        • Set up to because of Chadwick's findings- he was so disliked that they could not base an act his findings alone
      • Chadwick's reports
        • PIlot study
          • Chadwick and the PLC believed disease caused pauperism
          • So the PLC commissioned Chadwick to a pilot study into it
        • Report into the Saniatation of the working class 1842
          • PLC then commissioned him to do full report
          • 3 doctors- Southwood Smith, James Kay-Shuttlesworth and Neil Arnott
          • Self published
          • Named names so the PLC refused to publish it
  • Legislation/reports
    • Public Health Act 1848
      • 1st Government action
      • Set up the Central Board of Health
      • Local boards could set up in two circumstances
        • If death rate was more than 23 per 1000 (nat. average was 21 per 1000)
        • If 10% of ratepayers wanted one
      • Permissive- not mandatory
    • Public Health Act and Local Government Act 1866
      • Disbanded the Central Board of Health
      • Its powers transferred to the Privy Council
      • Disbanded because Chadwick was v. unpopular
    • Public Health Act 1875
      • Culmination of all previous acts
      • Made every mandatory
    • Royal Commission
      • Official Government committee on PH
      • Set up to because of Chadwick's findings- he was so disliked that they could not base an act his findings alone
    • Chadwick's reports
      • PIlot study
        • Chadwick and the PLC believed disease caused pauperism
        • So the PLC commissioned Chadwick to a pilot study into it
      • Report into the Saniatation of the working class 1842
        • PLC then commissioned him to do full report
        • 3 doctors- Southwood Smith, James Kay-Shuttlesworth and Neil Arnott
        • Self published
        • Named names so the PLC refused to publish it

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