psychopathology evaluation

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  • Created by: 14lquinn
  • Created on: 26-03-20 09:28
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  • psychopathology evaluation
    • statistical deviation
      • real life application: simple means of assessing patients
      • unusual characteristics can be positive: don't require treatment e.g. high IQ
      • not everyone unusual benefits form label: some people with low IQ function adequately
    • deviation from social norms
      • not sole explanation: other factors matter e.g. distress to others
      • cultural relativism: unfair to judge someone from another culture
      • can lead to human rights abusues: social norm approach maintains control over minority groups e.g. women
    • failure to function adequately
      • patientl's perspective: captures experience of people with mental distress problems
      • is it deviation form social norms?: alternative lifestyles or doing extreme sports may be examples of both
      • subjective judgements: matter of opinion during assessment
    • deviation from ideal mental health
      • comprehensive definition: includes all the reasons anyone might seek help
      • cultural relativism: ideas specific to western cultures e.g. self-actualisation
      • universally high standard of mental health: few people achieve all or even most of criteria at same time
    • phobias bhvrl. explanation
      • good explanatory power: explains how phobias can be aquired + maintained
      • alternative expln. for avoidance: may be motivated more by seeking safety than anxiety reduction
      • incomplete explanation: cannot account for preparedness to aquire phobias of some stimuli + not others
    • phobia treatments
      • FLOODING
        • cost-effective: quicker + more effective = cheaper
        • less effective for some: less effective for complex phobias e.g social phobias
        • traumatic: drop out rate high = ineffective
      • SYST. DESENS.
        • effective: more effective than relaxation alone after 33 months (Gilroy et al)
        • diverse range of patients: e.g. appropriate for patients with learning difficulties
        • acceptable to patients: patients prefer to flooding so drop-out rates are lower
    • depression explanations (cognitive)
        • supporting evidence: solid support for idea that certain cognitions make us vulnerable to depression (Clark + Beck)
        • practical application in CBT: negative thoughts can be identified + challenged by therapist
        • doesn't explain all aspects: canniot easily explain extremes of anger or hallucinations + delusions
        • partial explanation: not all cases follow life events
        • practical application in CBT: irrational thoughts can be identified + challenged by therapist
        • doesn't explain all aspects: cannot easily explain extremes of anger or hallucinations + delusions
    • depression treatment
      • CBT
        • effective: significntly more effective than no treatment
        • may not work for most severe cases: not effectuve when patients are too depressed to engage witn therapy
        • patient-therapist relationship: all therapies fairly similar
    • OCD explanations (biological)
      • GENETIC
      • NEURAL
        • supporting evidence: antidepressants that work on serotonin system alleviate OCD
        • not clear what mechanisms are involved: all neural systems associated with OCD are only involved in some cases
        • shouldn't assume neural mechanisms cause OCD: neural abnormalities may be result of OCD not cause
    • OCD treatment
        • effective at tackling systems: SSRIs are superior to placebos in treating OCD (Soomro et al)
        • cost-effective: compared to psychological treatmtents, drugs are cheap + non-disruptive
        • side effects: indigestion, blurred vision, loss of sex drive
        • more effective in combination with CBT


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