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  • Definition of abnormality
    • Deviation from ideal mental health
      • Jahoda defined abnormality by the absence of particular ideal characteristics. behaviour must deviate from ideal mental health.
      • the principles.
        • having a positive view of yourself (high self esteem) with a strong sense of identity.
        • being capable of personal growth.
        • being independent and self-regulating
        • having an accurate view of reality.
        • being able to  integrate and resist stress
        • being able to master your environment
      • if you do not demonstrate one of these criteria's you are defined as abnormal
        • EG: Someone with depression having negative thoughts about themselves
      • evaluation.
        • Issue: unrealistic criteria. at times everyone will experience negativity for example, grieving a death.
          • irrespective of circumstance that are out of our control
          • high standards
        • Strength: positive and holistic. focuses on desirable behaviours and it covers a broad range of aspects.
        • Issue:Cultural relativism. some critirias classed as westernised EG: self growth may be seen as overly self-centred in other counties that value community.
    • Statistical infrequency
      • Evaluation
        • Issue: Misdiagnosis
        • Issue: Labelling is unhelpful. low IQ can cause low self image and an invitation for discrimination
      • Distribution curve
      • Abnormal if a behaviour is statistically uncommon or not seen often in society. looking at the distribution of a particular behaviour in a society
        • EG: High IQ above 130 is uncommon making them abnormal.
    • deviation from social norms.
      • an unwritten rule about what is acceptable in a society.
        • abnormal if you violate these rules. EG: a naked man wondering London you would see it as abnormal but in south African tribes its part of their culture.
      • evaluation
        • Issue:Cultural relativism. social norms differ between cultures. abnormality is not standardised as there is no global def for correct behaviour
          • EG: homosexuality is illegal in some counties meaning its classes as abnormal and in others its not.
        • Issue: Social norms change overtime=Hindsight bias.
          • EG: Homosexuality was classed as a mental illness and is now seen as a variation of normal behaviour. unethical because it could be seen as a form of social control over minority groups that don't conform to society.
    • Failure to function adequately
      • considered abnormal if they are unable to cope with the demands of everyday life independently
        • will experience personal suffering and distress because of failure to function
          • can cause discomfort to those who observe behaviour.
            • EG: Someone suffering with depression may struggle to get out of bend and go to work and communicate with family.
      • Evaluation
        • Issue: Individual differences. one persons OCD can make them late for work everyday but another could complete all their rituals and be on time..
          • same psychological symptoms but each person would be diagnosed differently according to this def questioning the validity
        • Strength: considers personal experiences. does not ignore thoughts and feelings.


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