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  • Psychology - Addiction Evaluation
    • Biological
      • Gambling
        • Explaining Individual Differences: -Bio explanations can explain ID; those with the same environmental conditions react differently (some gamble, some do not)
        • Reductionist- It ignores environmental and situation factors. These are important external factors E.g. Accessibility to gambling methods and peer pressure. suggesting it must be a product of interactionsm.
        • Explanatory Limits - Based on genetics, you cannot explain why some forms are more addictive than others. Breen and Zimmerman (2001): those hooked on video gambling became compulsive in one year. Other forms such as horse races tended to take over 3 years.
      • Smoking
        • Supporting Research- Thorgeirsson (2008): found a specific gene variant on chromosome 15 that influenced how many cigarettes someone had per day, nicotine dependence and the risk of disease. Those who had less than 10 a day were less likely to have this variant. Makes maintenance in terms of genetic factors likely.
        • Limitations - Reductionist - it neglects possible factors. However stating its a biological issue opens it up to pharmacological methods.
        • Implications - The fact that genes may be a pre dispositional factor means that people can be screened in order to make them aware they are vulnerable to addiction.
    • Cognitive
      • Gambling
        • Research Support - Li et al (2008) Supports the self medication model. Those gamblers who gambled for pleasure were less likely than those who gambled to escape life pressures were less likely to have other substance dependencies
        • Non Supporting Research - Benhsain and Ledouceur (2004) Gambling related cognition scale: two groups, one trained in statistics and the other in a non statistical field. They found no difference between the groups in their susceptibility to irrational gambling related cognitions.
        • Issues of Cause and Effect - The self medication model.  The correlational  link between depression and gambling. Depression isn't necessarily the cause of gambling; it could be the other way around.
      • Smoking
        • Addiction or Excess? - Expectancy Theory - May be more to do with excessive behaviour rather than an addiction. Research may be focusing on problematic behaviour but rarely considers loss of control. This means it's unclear as to what role expectancy theory plays in loss of control in behaviour.
        • Research Support Between Expectancy and Relapse - Inconsistent findings on nicotine patches. Hunt (2000) nicotine patches didn't help cessation, where as Moolchain (2005) found they can increase cessation rates and reduce relapse.
    • Behavioural
      • Smoking
        • Role Models - SLT influences supported by evidence. DiBlaso and Benda (1993): Peer group influences have been found to be the primary influence for adolescents who smoke or use drugs.
        • Conditioned Cues - Thewissen (2008): Tested the importance of environmental contexts in the urge to smoke. One group exposed to a cue predicting smoking, and other predicting smoking unavailability. Cues to smoking resulted in a greater urge to smoke.
        • Implications - Drummond (1990) Stimulus discrimination therapy applied from the theory that cues create the urge to smoke. Presenting cues without the availability to smoke, disassociating smoking with these cues means helping to quit smoking.
      • Gambling
        • Different Pathways - Blaszczynski and Nower (2002) Different pathways for gambling predict the success of treatments. Those who gamble due to behavioural reasons (such as social) have less attachment to things such a depression as a reason and therefore may find it easier to receive treatment.
        • Cant Explain All Forms of Gambling - It's hard to apply the principle of operant conditioning to all types of gambling. The difference between short and long term between the gambling and the reinforcement.
        • Explanations Fail to Explain - The approach explains why people gamble initially, but many people don't become addicted, meaning that there must be other factors from the jump from gambling behaviour to addictive behaviour. (Could be seen as reductionist)


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