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  • Psychology
    • Research methods
      • Theory
        • Based on what people have found in studies
        • its just an idea until you have done the study
        • When you have done a lot of studies this when you can come up with your theory
      • Study
        • tests that we carry out
        • they are usually carried out on people- but sometimes animals
      • Research
        • means both study and theory
        • In exam you can writ about the study and theory of a question that askes about research
    • Designing Psychological Investigations
      • Aim
        • A general research area you want to investigate
        • Can be investigating a difference or a similarity
        • When writing a question on it start with " To investigate..."
      • Hypothesis
        • A prediction of what you think you will find in your study
        • Needs to be testable, precise and operationalised
        • doing a experiment- EXPERIMENTAL hypothesis
        • if your not doing an experiment- ALTERNATIVE hypothesis
        • Directional/ One tailed hypothesis
          • When you say what the direction of the effect will be
        • Non directional/ two tailed hypothesis
          • When you just say that there will be a difference/ relationship but you do not say what that difference will be
        • Null hypothesis
          • This is the hypothesis that says that there will be no difference between conditions
      • Independent variable
        • The variable we manipulate
      • Dependent variable
        • The variable we measure
      • Operationalisation
        • The hypothesis, IV and DV should all be operationalized
        • means to put abstract concepts into concrete measurable concepts
        • Putting the variables into a form that they can be tested
      • Extraneous Variables
        • Variables that could potentially have an effect on the DV, other than the IV
        • this could potentially lower internal validity
      • Confounding variable
        • found after the study
        • these are variables that HAVE been found to have affected the DV.
        • These do lower the internal validity of the study
      • Constant error
        • something that did effect the DV
        • the same in both conditions
        • doesn't necessarily lower internal validity


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