psychology memory evaluation

knowledge organiser

  • Created by: 14lquinn
  • Created on: 30-03-20 12:38
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  • memory evaluation
    • coding
      • artificial stimuli: word lists have no personal significance
    • capacity
      • lacking validity: could be extraneous variables such as distractions
      • not so many chunks: Cowan - estimated STM as about 4 chunks
    • duration
      • meaningless stimuli: used consonant syllables
      • higher external validity: meaningful real-life memories, showed greater recall than LTM studies with meaningless material
    • MSM
      • supporting research evidence: studies into coding, capacity + duration demonstrate differnences between STM + LTM
      • more than 1 type of STM: studies of amnesia (e.g. KF) show different STMs for visual + auditory material
      • more than 1 type of rehearsal: elaborative rehearsal necessary for transfer to LTM not maintenance
    • types of LTM
      • clinical evidence: clive wearing + HM had damaged episodic memories but semantic + procedural fine
      • neuroimaging evidence: episodic + procedural memories recalled from diff parts of prefrontal cortex
      • real life applications: training programme for adults with mild cognitive impairments
    • WMM
      • clinical evidence: KF had poor auditory memory but good visual. Damaged PL but VSS fine
      • dual task performance: difficult to do 2 tasks at once  but 1 visual 1 verbal fine (Baddeley)
      • lack of clarity over CE: not yet fully explained, probably has diff components
    • interference theory
      • evaluation from lab studies: well controlled studies show intereference effects
      • artificial materials: lists of words not like everyday memory, may overemphasise interference as explanation
      • real life studies: Baddeley + Hitch (rugby players) supported interference
    • retrieval failure theory
      • supporting evidence: wide range of support. Eysenck claims retrival failure is most important reason for LTM forgetting
      • questioning context effects: no forgetting unless contexts very different e.g. land vs underwater (Baddeley)
      • recall vs recognition: absence of cues affects recall not recognition
    • misleading information
      • useful real life application: could help prevent miscarriages of justice + change police interviewing
      • artificial tasks: watching film clips ignores stress + anxiety of real life accident or crime
      • individual diffs: older people may be less accurate because of own age bias
    • cognitive interview
      • time consuming: takes longer + needs special training
      • some elements more valuable than others: 'report everything' + 'reinstate context' used together produced best recall
      • support of effectiveness of ECI: consistently produces more accurate recall than standard interview
    • effects on anxiety
      • weapon focus may not be relevant: Pickel (raw chicken) showed that it may be surprise + therefore tells us nothing about anxiety
      • field studies sometimes lack control: researchers can't control what happens to witnesses between crime + interview
      • ethical issues: creating anxiety in lab may cause psychological harm


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