PSYCHOLOGY - Behaviour modification in custody

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  • Behaviour modification in custody
    • Using OC
      • positive reinforcement
        • getting rewards for doing duties / good behaviour
      • negative reinforcement
        • avoiding a negative outcome eg. more time in cell
      • punishment
    • Token economies (Ayllon and Azrin)
      • prisoners rewarded tokens for desirable behavs. Tokens can be traded for rewards / privileges eg. time on internet
      • works best in 'closed' institutions due to rules and expectations set out clearly and monitored
    • Evaluation (A03)
      • something must be offered of value (primary reinforcers)
      • inconsistency - prisoners may change behaviour around certain guards who give tokens
      • guards may judge behaviour differently - unfair
      • too much power to prisoner guards
      • withholding privileges may conflict with human rights (eg. clean bedding, toilet etc)
        • one US programme was shut down
      • BLACKBURN - good for maintaining discipline but no rehabilitative value
      • ethics - conjugal visits release sexual and physical violence but are not permitted in the UK and only used in 6 American states
      • some privileges (eg. playstation) may be awarded to prisoners that people outside who have never committed a crime don't have one - unfair
    • Research
      • HOBBS - 125 young offenders with token economy compared to control group. Tokens for social interactions, rule following and task completion. Over 14 months, 27% increase in social behavs, no change in control group
      • AYLLON - TE promote desirable behav in prisons, but not applied after prison time
      • COHEN - reduced recidivism after 2 yrs but not 3

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