Memory

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  • Memory
    • Long term
      • Capacity
        • Unlimited
      • Encoding
        • Mainly semantic
      • Duration
        • Unlimited
    • Short term
      • Capacity
        • 7+/- 2 items
      • Encoding
        • mainly acoustic
      • Duration
        • 18 seconds
    • Multi-store model
      • They proposed that memory consisted of three stores: sensory register, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).
      • Information passes from store to store in a linear way.
      • Sensory memory is the information you get from your sense, your eyes and ears.
      • When attention is paid to something in the environment it is then converted to short-term memory.
      • Once in the STM informed can be rehearsed then go into LTM
    • Working memory model
      • Visuospatial sketchpad
        • The VSS is a temporary memory system for holding visual and spatial information.
          • the visual cache (which store visual data about form and colour)
          • the inner scribe (which records the arrangement of objects in the visual field, and rehearses and transfers information in the visual cache to the central executive).
      • phonological loop
        • temporary storage system for holding auditory information in a speech based form.
          • the articulatory process (inner voice), which allows maintenance rehearsal
          • the phonological store (inner ear), which stores words you hear
        • The phonological loop plays a key role in the development of reading
      • episodic buffer
        • acts as a 'backup' (temporary) store for information
        • communicates with both long term memory and the slave system components of working memory.
    • Explanations for forgetting
      • Interference
        • Proactive interference  is where old learning prevents recall of more recent information
        • Retroactive interference   is where new learning prevents recall of previously learned information.
        • Proactive and retroactive Interference is thought to be more likely to occur where the memories are similar, for example: confusing old and new telephone numbers.
      • Retrieval failure
        • Retrieval failure is where information is available in long term memory but cannot be recalled because of the absence of appropriate cues
        • Types of cues that have been studied by psychologists include context, state and organisation
        • When we store a new memory we also store information about the situation and these are known as retrieval cues
          • When we come into the same situation again, these retrieval cues can trigger the memory of the situation.
        • Context
          • external cues in the environment, e.g. smell, place etc
        • Organisation
          • Recall is improved if the organisation gives a structure which provides triggers, eg categories.
        • State
          • bodily cues inside of us, e.g. physical, emotional, mood, drunk etc

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