Psychopathology

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  • Psycho-pathology
    • Cognitive explanation- Depression
      • CBT
      • Activating Event
        • Beliefs
          • Consequence
            • Disputing
              • Logical
              • Empirical
              • Pragmatic
      • Beck
        • Negative schemas- triad
      • RWA- long term strategies
    • Behavioural explanation- Phobias
      • Classical conditioning
        • Pavlov
        • 1) Unconditioned stimulus= unconditioned response
          • 2) Unconditioned stimulus + neutral stimulus
            • 3) Conditioned stimulus = conditioned response
        • Little Albert
          • Trained to associate white rat with fear, by striking steel bar
          • Ethics
          • RWA- if phobias are learned, they can be unlearned
            • Systematic desensitisation
              • In vitro ( in the mind) vs in vivo (in real life)
              • Counter conditioning
                • Reciprocal inhibition
              • McGrath- 75% effective
            • Flooding
              • Unethical?
          • Association between stimulus and response- association can be generalised, e.g. fear of school becomes fear of leaving house
        • How phobia is learned
          • Mowrer- 2 step process
            • How phobia is maintained
      • Operant conditioning
        • Skinner
        • Reinforcement
          • Positive reinforcement- behaviour results in reward, so behaviour repeated
            • RWA: token economy- institutions (schools, prisons, psychiatric hospitals)
          • Negative reinforcement- behaviour results in negative experience ceasing, so behaviour repeated
            • RWA: understanding comfort eating/ alcoholism
        • Punishment- exterminates behaviour
        • How phobia is maintained
      • Reductionist- perhaps some phobias were evolutionarily helpful, so are hereditary
        • Biological preparedness
      • Determinist- free will
      • Animal studies- can't necessarily be generalised to humans
      • Individual differences
      • Social learning theory
        • Bandura 1961
        • Vicarious reinforcement
          • Behaviour imitated if role model rewarded
            • Motivation- cost benefit analysis
        • Vicarious punishment
          • Behaviour exterminated if role model punished
        • Soft determinism
    • Biological explanation- OCD
      • Genetic
        • Diathesis stress model
          • Cromer- more than half of OCD patients have experienced traumatic event- environmental influence
          • RWA: combine with CBT- most effective?
        • OCD is polygenic
          • Taylor 2013- 230 genes involved
        • Candidate genes e.g. 5HT1-D beta (transport of serotonin across synapses)
        • Aetiologically heterogeneous
          • Origin has different causes
      • Neural
        • Anti-depressants
          • e.g. SSRIs (fluoxetine)
            • Soomro et al- meta analysis of 17 studies- SSRIs more effective than placebos after 3 months
              • Koran et al- criticises because short term study- SSRIs might not be effective in long term, whereas CBT provides skills for coping in future
          • e.g. Tricyclics (Clomipramine)
            • Side effects: increased aggression, hallucinations
        • Anti-anxiety e.g. BZs (Xanax)
          • Increase GABA levels, reducing stress
          • Side effects: increased aggression, addiction
        • Diathesis stress model
          • Cromer- more than half of OCD patients have experienced traumatic event- environmental influence
          • RWA: combine with CBT- most effective?
        • OCD linked to impaired decision making
          • Abnormal functioning of lateral frontal lobes
          • Correlation, not causation
      • Alternative treatment- CBT
        • 70% efficacy- so OCD can't be purely biological
        • Expensive, less accessible
    • Abnormality
      • Failure to function adequately
        • Rosenhan & Seligman
        • Subjective- observer and individual may have different priorities e.g. staying in to work rather than go out and be sociable
        • Adaptive behaviours may appear dysfunctional
        • Cultural relativism, ethno-centrism
        • When aspects of behaviour affect daily functioning e.g. not showering
      • Deviation from ideal mental health
        • Jahoda
        • Criteria includes good self esteem, strong sense of identity
        • Unrealistic- almost no-one could fulfil criteria
        • Cultural relativism, ethno-centrism
      • Deviation from social norms
        • Breaking unwritten laws of social interaction
        • Eccentricity merges with abnormality- no clear line
        • Subjective- norms differ depending on time/location
        • Statistical infrequency
          • Normal distribution curve
            • Far from mean, outside standard deviation
          • Sometimes desirable e.g. high IQ, 'abnormal' has negative connotations
          • Objective

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