Psychological Investigations

There are some bits i've missed such as the strengths and weaknesses of the experimental designs. Just so you're aware!

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  • Created by: Bryony
  • Created on: 12-05-14 19:45
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  • Psychological Investigations
    • Correlation
      • types
        • no correlation
        • Positive Correlation
        • Negative Correlation
      • Correlation Coefficient
        • States how strong a correlation is
        • -1.0
          • perfect negative correlation
        • 1.0
          • perfect positive correlation
        • 0
          • no correlation
      • Descriptive Statistics
        • cannot make a conclusion
          • related to the hypothesis
        • summarise and describes data
        • scattergraph
          • shows correlation between co-variables
      • Evaluation
        • disadvantages
          • cannot show cause and effect
        • used as a starting point
        • strengths
          • practical and ethical
          • shows relationships between variables
    • Self-report
      • Problems
        • questions are not always clear
          • not valid data
        • low rate reponse
          • questionnaires via email
        • questions can be leading
        • social desirability bias
      • rating scales
        • quantitative data
        • likert scale
          • tendency towards middle
            • less extreme
        • shows strength of opinion
      • Questionnaires
        • type of questions
          • open
          • closed
      • Interviews
        • semi-structured
          • some premeditated questions
        • spoken questionnaire
        • structured
          • restrict response
        • unstructured
          • time consuming
      • pilot study
        • smaller version of a study carried out before the main research
      • sampling
        • random sample
        • stratified sampling
        • snowball sampling
        • opportunity sample
        • self-selecting (volunteer) sample
    • Observation
      • types of observation
        • time sampling
        • event sampling
        • overt
        • covert
        • participant
        • non-participant
      • inter-rater reliability
        • increases reliability
          • as well as clear categories
        • comparing the ratings of two or more observers
          • checking for agreement
      • validity
        • increase
          • employ more observers
          • observers kept unaware of aims
          • clearly coded categories
        • decrease
          • observer bias
            • not record objectively
            • influenced by expectations
          • participants are unaware of observation
      • strengths
        • useful as a starting point
        • ecologically valid
        • see more behaviour rather than what they say they do
        • offer ways of studying behaviour when there are ethical problems
      • weaknesses
        • ethical issues
          • consent
        • little or no control
          • can't see cause and effect
        • observer bias
        • time consuming
        • harder to replicate
        • no info about thoughts of feelings
    • Experiment
      • Hypothesis
        • one tailed
        • two tailed
        • alternate
        • null
      • lab experiment
        • weaknesses
          • low in ecological validity
          • demand characteristics
            • participants know they're in an experiment
          • ethical issues
            • deception
        • strengths
          • easily replicated
          • always see cause and effect
      • field experiment
        • strengths
          • high in ecological validity
            • conducted in real life situations
          • demand characteristics
            • participants are usually unaware
        • weaknesses
          • not usually possible to gain consent and debrief
          • harder to control confounding variables
      • quasi/natural experiment
        • strengths
          • avoids demand characteristics
          • IV is not manipulated
        • weaknesses
          • harder to establish cause and effect
      • experimental designs
        • matched pairs
        • independent measures
        • repeated measures

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