Psychological Therapies for Depression

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  • Psychological Therapies for Depression
    • A01
      • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
        • It was developed by Beck and emphasises the role of maladaptive thoughts and beliefs in the origins and maintenance of depression
        • When people think negatively about themselves, they become depressed.
        • CBT aims to identify and alter these maladaptive cognitions as well as dysfunctional behaviours that might be contributing to depression
        • Thought catching is a part of CBT which is where patients are taught to see the link between their thoughts and the way they feel. It aims to actively challenge dysfunctional thoughts by replacing them with constructive ones.
        • Behavioural activation is a key part of CBT and is based on the 'common sense idea' that being active leads to rewards that act as an antidote for depression
          • Many depressed people don't want to participate in activities and CBT allows depression sufferers to deal with nay cognitive obstacles stopping them form doing so.
        • In CBT, problems are broken down into 5 main areas such as situations, thoughts, emotions, physical changes and actions. CBT is based on the concept of these areas being inter-connected
      • Psycho dynamic interpersonal therapy
        • The therapist and client engage in therapeutic conversation and problems are actively relived in the present and resolved within the therapeutic relationship.
        • Hobson believed that symptoms of depression arise from disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
          • The disturbances can only be modified effectively within another relationship, a therapeutic one thus, the quality of the relationship is crucial
        • There are different components of PIT which as exploratory rationale where interpersonal difficulties in the individual's life are identified.
          • Shared understanding is another component which is where the therapist tries to understand what the individual is really feeling or experiencing.
            • Staying with feelings is the next component where rather than talking about feelings, they are recreated in an therapeutic environment.
              • Focusing n difficult feelings is another component where the individual may express anger of which they are unaware of.
                • Gaining insight is the last component, the therapist points out patterns in different types of relationships
    • A02
      • CBT
        • Research also shows that the importance of homework can effect the results the clients have. Bryant suggested that the client's engagement with 'homework' predicts their outcomes and that therapists who are able improve client's engagement lead to successful results.
        • Evidence for CBT comes from studies on the effectiveness of treatments. Engles concluded CBT is an effective treatment for a number of different types of depression. Thus, conveying that CBT is an effective treatment as it has worked on many people.
        • The effectiveness of CBT has been demonstrated in a meta-analysis, their conclusions were that CBT was superior to non-treatment control group.
          • However, when the control group were split into a waiting list, CBT was not significantly more effective than placebo in reducing depressive symptoms.
      • PIT
        • Paley investigated effectiveness in a routine clinical practice setting, patients received PIT over 52 months. Outcomes were assessed using BDI which measures severity of symptoms in depressed individuals.
          • There were significant differences in scoes in pre and post treatment phases, it was roughly equivalent to other therapies in terms of effectiveness thus it is an effective treatment.
        • Barkham concluded a collaborative psychotherapy project to investigate the effectiveness of PIT and CBT and they were equally effective in reducing the severity of depression
        • There are studied on brief interventions of PIT. Psychotherapy patients were randomly allocated to receive PIT for 12 weeks or to remain on a waiting list. There was significant improvements were observed in patients who completed the therapy.
          • This suggests that even brief interventions of PIT is effective.
  • CBT
    • Research also shows that the importance of homework can effect the results the clients have. Bryant suggested that the client's engagement with 'homework' predicts their outcomes and that therapists who are able improve client's engagement lead to successful results.
    • Evidence for CBT comes from studies on the effectiveness of treatments. Engles concluded CBT is an effective treatment for a number of different types of depression. Thus, conveying that CBT is an effective treatment as it has worked on many people.
    • The effectiveness of CBT has been demonstrated in a meta-analysis, their conclusions were that CBT was superior to non-treatment control group.
      • However, when the control group were split into a waiting list, CBT was not significantly more effective than placebo in reducing depressive symptoms.

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