Psychodynamic approach

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  • Created by: Gemma
  • Created on: 01-05-13 16:20
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  • PsychodynamicApproach
    • Key terms
      • Conscious
        • What we are aware of
      • Preconscious
        • Not in conscious memory but  we can access it if needed
      • Unconscious
        • We cannot access on our own/ we don't know about
    • Freud's psychosexual stages
      • Oral
        • 0-2 years
        • Organ of pleasure- mouth
      • Anal
        • 2-3 years
        • Organ of pleasure- anus
      • Phalic
        • 3-6 years
        • organ of pleasure- genitals
      • Latency
        • 6-puberty
        • no organ of pleasure
      • Genital
        • puberty - adulthood
    • Gender development
      • Electra Complex
        • Same as oedipus but for girls
          • girls find out they haven't got a penis- penis envy
            • Girl identifies with her mother and learns gender role so she can possess her father
              • A girls always remails slightly fixated in the phalic stage although she has identified with mother
                • He super ego develops
      • Oedipus Complex
        • Boys natural love for mother turns sexual due to phalic stage
          • Boy feels aggression towards father who is in the way and love for his mother which is unconscious
            • Parent tells of son for masterbating
              • Causing castration fear
                • Castration fear becomes stronger than desire to posses mother
                  • Boy has to identity with father and learn gender behaviour
                    • Boy does what father does, he absorbs  fathers approach to social rules and develops super ego
      • Strength of theory
        • Novel approach to explaining mental disorders
        • Unique methods- specifically developed for own person
        • Tried to be scientific and rigorous
        • Unwilling to analyse dreams out of context
        • he wasn't as subjective as though- 'sometimes a cigar is just a guitar'
      • Weaknesses
        • Lack of evidence
        • Ideas from own experience- subjective
        • Concepts aren't measureable
        • Used case studies
          • Hard to show reliability as it is a unique case so cannot be repeated
        • Drew his conclusions from a small sample
          • Middle-class Viennese woman- certain neuroses
          • No range of different classes & types of people
        • Hard to generalise
    • Defence mechanisms
      • Repression
        • Putting into the unconsious unconsiously
      • Displacement
        • taking out impulses on a less threatening target
      • ways of protecting the ego when there is conflict between the demands of the Id and the superego
    • Little Hans
      • Weaknesses
        • Case study involves subjective interpretation- not reliable
        • Parents were followers of Fread- Biased
        • There are other explanations- Bowlby- A child needs their mother as an attachment figure in their early years
        • Methods are not scientific so are not testable, not easily repeated= not reliable
      • Strengths
        • Data was valid as it was comprehensive, covering dreams events, ideas and feelings- Hans talked freely about problems- true to life
        • Led to psychoanalysis + other psychotherapies being developed
          • Freud focuses on unconscious processes- 'talking cure' and 'listening cure' have been built upon
      • Conclusion
        • Freud thought the study was evidence for his psychosexual stages and theory of how gender develops
      • Description of Themes
        • Hans had an interest in his 'widdler' and was told of for touching it
          • Hans seemed to want his father to die and he was jealous of his sister
            • Hans agreed to Freud's and his fathers suggestion that he wanted his sister to drown when she was being washed by his mother
        • He has a phobia of horeses
          • He heard a father of a girl telling her to not touch it. He was also scared of black on horses and things in front of their eyes
        • Hans was playing with dolls and 'having children'
          • His father said boys can't have children and Hans replied that his mum is the children's mother and Hans is the dad
      • Procedure
        • Used a case study- only one person and in depth information
        • He used dream analysis
        • Gathered infromation from Han's father
        • Han'smother and father documented his development
    • Key Issues
      • Do dreams have meaning
        • For
          • Can be measure by rapid eye movements- evidence for everybody dreams
          • Some dreams mean something to the dreamer- often can relate the content with their worries
          • Many people agree dreams have meaning but not about Freud's sexual interpretations
          • Psycho analytic approach backs up dreams have meaning
            • Most woman have many anxieties during pregnancy & it has been reported that they have more vivid dreams at this anxious time
          • Little HAns backs up the theory
            • He was anxious about oedipal matters and so had dreams of a mummy and daddy giraffe
          • Psychodynamic approach
            • It is important to uncover that meaning of the dream to cure the patient of neuroses or other mental health problems
        • Against
          • Could be biological
            • Connected with neurotransmitters from the day and interpreted by an active brain during sleep
          • Dreams are to organise events and memories and remove irrelevant thoughts from the day
          • Dreams aren't testable in an objective & scientific way- not measurable and not accessible
          • Interpretation by an analyst is open to subjectivity. Even if dreams have hidden meaning you cannot tell whether the interpretation is correct
    • Designs
      • Correlation
        • Strengths
          • Little manipulation of variable
          • Can show a relationship that might not be expected and can point to new areas for research
        • Weaknesses
          • A relationship is found without finding whether the two variables are casually or chance related
            • Does not show a true cause and effect
          • Tend to lack validity
            • At least one variable has to be operationalised which makes it unnatural
      • Longitudinal studies
        • Follow one sit of participants over time
        • Strengths
          • Useful for looking at development trends- main way to see how an individual's development affects certain characteristics
          • Use the same participants- participant variables will not give bias in the results
        • Weaknesses
          • Difficult to keep all the participants for each of the measure & people drop out
            • So the sample can become biased if certain groups of people leave
          • The researchers may change over time. This can affect the study as relationships with the partcipants may differ
      • Cross-sectional studies
        • Measures taken at one moment in time
        • Strengths
          • gather immediate results
          • Cheaper
          • more ethical
        • Weaknesses
          • different participants are used in the conditions so participant variables can affect the results
          • Many differnt variables in the two situations being tested that cannot be controlled, e.g.the environement of the two groups, their background or their friendship groups
    • Freud's theory of Personality
      • Id
        • Pleasure principle
        • Innate drive for physical gratification
      • Ego
        • Conscious part of mind
        • Reality principle
      • Superego
        • Morality principle
        • Related to our conscience
    • Levels of Measurement
      • Nominal
        • Lowest level of measurement
          • Numbers are just in Categories
            • E.g. ticking boxes
      • Ordinal
        • The numbers are rankings
          • E.g. A scale
      • Interval
        • Ratio
          • data which has a true zero
            • E.g. Time, weight, length
        • Gaps between one score and the next are equivilant
          • E.g. Number of words recalled
            • You can say that the person who remembered 40 words remembered twice as much as someone who remember 20 words
  • Dibs - Axline
    • Description of themes
      • Dibs showed that he was a gifted child who could read, spell and understand complex concepts
      • He used dolls and toy soldiers to act out situations with his family in the therapy room
      • He showed hatred for his father by burying the toy soldier he called 'Papa' in the sand
      • He said he did not like locked rooms or walls
      • He was angry with his family
    • Conclusion
      • Play therapy allowed Dib's feelings to be worked through and allowed him to find himself.
      • The overcontrolling superego would mean he had no balanced personality; play therapy allowed a balance to be found
    • Proedure
      • Case study
      • Play therapy sessions
    • PsychodynamicApproach
      • Key terms
        • Conscious
          • What we are aware of
        • Preconscious
          • Not in conscious memory but  we can access it if needed
        • Unconscious
          • We cannot access on our own/ we don't know about
      • Freud's psychosexual stages
        • Oral
          • 0-2 years
          • Organ of pleasure- mouth
        • Anal
          • 2-3 years
          • Organ of pleasure- anus
        • Phalic
          • 3-6 years
          • organ of pleasure- genitals
        • Latency
          • 6-puberty
          • no organ of pleasure
        • Genital
          • puberty - adulthood
      • Gender development
        • Electra Complex
          • Same as oedipus but for girls
            • girls find out they haven't got a penis- penis envy
              • Girl identifies with her mother and learns gender role so she can possess her father
                • A girls always remails slightly fixated in the phalic stage although she has identified with mother
                  • He super ego develops
        • Oedipus Complex
          • Boys natural love for mother turns sexual due to phalic stage
            • Boy feels aggression towards father who is in the way and love for his mother which is unconscious
              • Parent tells of son for masterbating
                • Causing castration fear
                  • Castration fear becomes stronger than desire to posses mother
                    • Boy has to identity with father and learn gender behaviour
                      • Boy does what father does, he absorbs  fathers approach to social rules and develops super ego
        • Strength of theory
          • Novel approach to explaining mental disorders
          • Unique methods- specifically developed for own person
          • Tried to be scientific and rigorous
          • Unwilling to analyse dreams out of context
          • he wasn't as subjective as though- 'sometimes a cigar is just a guitar'
        • Weaknesses
          • Lack of evidence
          • Ideas from own experience- subjective
          • Concepts aren't measureable
          • Used case studies
            • Hard to show reliability as it is a unique case so cannot be repeated
          • Drew his conclusions from a small sample
            • Middle-class Viennese woman- certain neuroses
            • No range of different classes & types of people
          • Hard to generalise
      • Defence mechanisms
        • Repression
          • Putting into the unconsious unconsiously
        • Displacement
          • taking out impulses on a less threatening target
        • ways of protecting the ego when there is conflict between the demands of the Id and the superego
      • Little Hans
        • Weaknesses
          • Case study involves subjective interpretation- not reliable
          • Parents were followers of Fread- Biased
          • There are other explanations- Bowlby- A child needs their mother as an attachment figure in their early years
          • Methods are not scientific so are not testable, not easily repeated= not reliable
        • Strengths
          • Data was valid as it was comprehensive, covering dreams events, ideas and feelings- Hans talked freely about problems- true to life
          • Led to psychoanalysis + other psychotherapies being developed
            • Freud focuses on unconscious processes- 'talking cure' and 'listening cure' have been built upon
        • Conclusion
          • Freud thought the study was evidence for his psychosexual stages and theory of how gender develops
        • Description of Themes
          • Hans had an interest in his 'widdler' and was told of for touching it
            • Hans seemed to want his father to die and he was jealous of his sister
              • Hans agreed to Freud's and his fathers suggestion that he wanted his sister to drown when she was being washed by his mother
          • He has a phobia of horeses
            • He heard a father of a girl telling her to not touch it. He was also scared of black on horses and things in front of their eyes
          • Hans was playing with dolls and 'having children'
            • His father said boys can't have children and Hans replied that his mum is the children's mother and Hans is the dad
        • Procedure
          • Used a case study- only one person and in depth information
          • He used dream analysis
          • Gathered infromation from Han's father
          • Han'smother and father documented his development
      • Key Issues
        • Do dreams have meaning
          • For
            • Can be measure by rapid eye movements- evidence for everybody dreams
            • Some dreams mean something to the dreamer- often can relate the content with their worries
            • Many people agree dreams have meaning but not about Freud's sexual interpretations
            • Psycho analytic approach backs up dreams have meaning
              • Most woman have many anxieties during pregnancy & it has been reported that they have more vivid dreams at this anxious time
            • Little HAns backs up the theory
              • He was anxious about oedipal matters and so had dreams of a mummy and daddy giraffe
            • Psychodynamic approach
              • It is important to uncover that meaning of the dream to cure the patient of neuroses or other mental health problems
          • Against
            • Could be biological
              • Connected with neurotransmitters from the day and interpreted by an active brain during sleep
            • Dreams are to organise events and memories and remove irrelevant thoughts from the day
            • Dreams aren't testable in an objective & scientific way- not measurable and not accessible
            • Interpretation by an analyst is open to subjectivity. Even if dreams have hidden meaning you cannot tell whether the interpretation is correct
      • Designs
        • Correlation
          • Strengths
            • Little manipulation of variable
            • Can show a relationship that might not be expected and can point to new areas for research
          • Weaknesses
            • A relationship is found without finding whether the two variables are casually or chance related
              • Does not show a true cause and effect
            • Tend to lack validity
              • At least one variable has to be operationalised which makes it unnatural
        • Longitudinal studies
          • Follow one sit of participants over time
          • Strengths
            • Useful for looking at development trends- main way to see how an individual's development affects certain characteristics
            • Use the same participants- participant variables will not give bias in the results
          • Weaknesses
            • Difficult to keep all the participants for each of the measure & people drop out
              • So the sample can become biased if certain groups of people leave
            • The researchers may change over time. This can affect the study as relationships with the partcipants may differ
        • Cross-sectional studies
          • Measures taken at one moment in time
          • Strengths
            • gather immediate results
            • Cheaper
            • more ethical
          • Weaknesses
            • different participants are used in the conditions so participant variables can affect the results
            • Many differnt variables in the two situations being tested that cannot be controlled, e.g.the environement of the two groups, their background or their friendship groups
      • Freud's theory of Personality
        • Id
          • Pleasure principle
          • Innate drive for physical gratification
        • Ego
          • Conscious part of mind
          • Reality principle
        • Superego
          • Morality principle
          • Related to our conscience
      • Levels of Measurement
        • Nominal
          • Lowest level of measurement
            • Numbers are just in Categories
              • E.g. ticking boxes
        • Ordinal
          • The numbers are rankings
            • E.g. A scale
        • Interval
          • Ratio
            • data which has a true zero
              • E.g. Time, weight, length
          • Gaps between one score and the next are equivilant
            • E.g. Number of words recalled
              • You can say that the person who remembered 40 words remembered twice as much as someone who remember 20 words
  • Freud's case studies
    • Free association- person talks about everything they want and the analyst looks for unconscious thoughts and desires
    • Dream and symbol analysis- person describes a dream and the anayst looks for meaing- Latent content
    • Slips of the toungue- mistakes that reveal unconscious desires
  • Inferential tests
    • P < 0.05
      • The probability of the results being due to chance is less than or equal to 5%
    • Mann-Whitney
      • Ordinal data
        • Independant groups
          • Finding a difference
    • Spearman's Rho
      • Ordinal data
        • Correlation
    • Chi-squared
      • Nominal data
        • Independent groups
          • Finding a difference/ association

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