Psychodynamic Explanation (Gender)

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  • Freud's Psychoanalytic Explanation
    • Proposed psychosexual stages
      • Anal Stage (18-36 months)
        • Gender identity is seen as flexible, children are 'bisexual'
      • Oral Stage (0-18 months)
        • Gender identity is seen as flexible, children are 'bisexual'
    • Parental Involvement in Gender Identity Acquisition
      • Phallic Stage
        • Proposed psychosexual stages
          • Anal Stage (18-36 months)
            • Oral Stage (0-18 months)
            • Gender identity starts to develop
              • Between 3-6 as pleasure is focused around genitals
            • Oedipus Complex
              • All boys develop conflict
                • Arises due to boys feelings towards mother, and jealousy of father
                  • Therefore fears castration from father
                    • Identification
                      • Adopting values, behaviours and morals of same sex parents to resolve conflict
                        • Leads to boy identifying with father to resolve conflict
                          • Boy adopt same gender identity and role as father
                            • Starts behaving as a male
            • Electra Complex
              • Girls develop conflict
                • Arises due to girls having feelings for father
        • Little Hans Case Study
          • Hans had a phobia of horses
            • Freud used psychoanalytic theory to interpret Hans' development
              • Found that Hans' fear of horses was a displaced fear of castration from father
                • White horse with black around mouth represented father
                  • Fear of falling horses represented unconscious desire for father to drop dead
        • Believe gender is driven by unconscious forces
      • Identification
        • Adopting values, behaviours and morals of same sex parents to resolve conflict
          • Leads to boy identifying with father to resolve conflict
            • Boy adopt same gender identity and role as father
              • Starts behaving as a male

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