Psychodynamic Approach

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  • Psychodynamic Approach
    • Freud
      • Personality
        • EGO
          • Reality principle
            • Finds acceptable ways to satisfy basic ID demands
          • Develops around the ages 2-3
          • Weak ego
            • ID to dominate- dangerous immoral behaviour
        • ID
          • Pleasure principle
          • Born with it, energy of the system
          • 2 major drives- sex and aggression
        • SUPEREGO
          • Perfection principle
          • Develops around age 5-6
          • Concerned with right and wrong
          • Incorporates the morals we learn from parents
      • Behaviour was influenced be inner forces and unconscious mind
      • The mind is like a inceberg
        • 1/10 is above the water (conscious)
        • 9/10 is below the water (sub concious
          • Explored by- Dreams, Slips of the tongue, Free association
          • Consists of Preconscious and Unconscious
            • Preconscious- Easily bring to conscious from memory
            • Unconscious- store of all information. Cannot bring them easily to awareness- influence our behaviour
              • Explored by- Dreams, Slips of the tongue, Free association
    • Transactional Analysis- BERNE
      • Transaction- Communication between people
      • Three ego states within one person
        • Child
          • Behaviours, thoughts and feelings replayed from childhood
        • Parent
          • Behaviours, thoughts and feelings copied from parents or parental figures
        • Adult
          • Behaviours, thoughts and feelings which are direct responses to the here and now
      • Complementary transcation
        • E.g. ADULT state request = ADULTego state response
      • Crossed transacations
        • CHILD state request = ADULT state response
      • We give each other ecognition or 'strokes'
        • E.g. children- physical strokes- hugs
        • E.g. adults- verbal strokes- praise
        • People need strokes- if they don't get positive strokes- they will work purposely to get negative strokes
    • Strengths
      • In-depth approach to personal problems
        • Explore the whole system of an individual
      • Comprehensive range of theory
        • Explains the influence of experiences
        • Explore an individuals emotions
      • Offers possibility of psychological growth and develpment
        • Clients can explore causes ofp roblems or disrorders
    • Weaknessess
      • Theory base isn't accepted by everyone
        • Some people don't believe the things Freud said
      • Time consuming
        • Can take years
        • Intensive
      • Authority
    • Influence of early relationships
      • Bowlby theory of attachment
        • Those who didn't have a bond with one of their parents will find it hard to form a relationship in future
          • Show destructive behaviour
          • Feel anxious
    • Defense mechanisms
      • Repression
        • Forcing any unacceptable thoughts and memories into our unconscious mind
      • Sublimation
        • Shifting thoughts and desires into an activity which is socially acceptable
      • Regression
        • Displaying childish behaviour which would have been effective when we were younger
      • Projection
        • Attributuion of our own feelings onto another person
        • What we sometimes see in others, we see in ourselves

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