Psychodynamic Approach

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  • Psychodynamic Approach
    • The Role of the Unconscious
      • Conscious: The mental activity that we are aware of (thoughts, perceptions).
      • Pre-Conscious: The mental activity that we could be aware of if we focused (memories).
      • Unconscious: The mental activity we aren't aware of (irrationality, trauma).
      • Freudian Slips: when the ego doesn't censor the id.
    • The Structure of Personality
      • Ego: It resolves any conflict between the id and superego.
        • Develops from 2 years of age.
        • Based on the reality principle.
        • Uses defence mechanisms if it can't resolve something.
      • Id: It controls desires and instincts in the unconscious minds.
        • Develops from birth (bundles of ids).
        • Based on the pleasure principle.
        • Too strong - immoral and destructive behaviour.
      • Superego: It represents standards that we have been taught to live to.
        • Develops from 5 years of age.
        • Too strong - phobias and OCD.
        • Based on the morality principle.
    • Defence Mechanisms
      • Denial - refusing to acknowledge some aspect of reality.
      • Repression - the unconscious blocking of unacceptable thoughts and impulses.
      • Displacement - you redirect feelings to another target.
    • Psychosexual Stages
      • 3. Phallic (3yrs-5yrs)
        • Fixation: anxiety, narcissism (men) or envy, inferiority (women).
        • Focus: genital area. Desire: OEDIPUS, ELECTRA.
      • 4. Latency (6yrs-12yrs)
        • Focus: same sex friendships. Desire: hobbies.
        • Fixation: None.
      • 2. Anal (1yr-3yrs)
        • Fixation: anal retentive, anal expulsive.
        • Focus: the anus. Desire: withholding and excreting.
      • 5. Genital (12yrs+)
        • Focus: healthy relationships. Desire: None.
        • Fixation: None.
      • 1. Oral (Birth-1yr)
        • Fixation: smoking, drinking,.
        • Focus: the mouth. Desire: the mother's breast.
    • Evaluation
      • Freud based his research on in-depth detailed analysis.
        • Strength: A large amount of info can be gathered.
        • Weakness: One patient isn't representative of the population.
      • The topic is deterministic and socially sensitive.
      • It is not open to empirical reasoning as the unconscious mind is pretty much impossible to investigate.


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