Psychodynamic Approach

View mindmap
  • Psychodynamic  Approach
    • Sigmund Freud
      • when he realised there was no cause for physical symptoms of his patients, he proposed they were caused by deep-rooted psychological conflict with the unconscious mind which influences behaviour
      • adult behaviour is influenced by childhood experiences
      • abnormal behaviour is the result of mental conflict
    • this approach states unconscious forces in our mind determine our thoughts, feelings and behaviours
    • the mind
      • conscious
        • the part of our mind we know about and are aware of
        • thoughts and perceptions are store here
      • preconscious
        • thoughts and ideas we may become aware of during things like dreams or Freudian slips
          • Freudian slips are slips of the tongue e.g. calling a teacher 'mom'
        • memories and knowledge are stored here
      • unconscious
        • a vast storehouse of biological drives and instincts which have a significant effect on both behaviour and personality
        • stores traumatic experiences and irrational wishes
    • the personality
      • the id
        • the part that operates on the pleasure principle and demand instant gratification, it is a mass of unconscious drives and instincts
        • this is the only part present at birth
        • the needs of the id are focused on hunger, thirst and sex
      • the ego
        • the mediator of the id and superego which operates on the reality principle
        • the ego develops when a person is about 2 years old
        • the ego seeks to satisfy the id in a socially acceptable way as it is logical and rational
      • the superego
        • our internalised sense of right and wrong which operates on the morality principle
        • based on the moral standards of the child's same-sex parent
        • develops at about 5-6 years old
    • psychosexual stages
      • erogenous zones are different parts of our bodies which become particularly sensitive as we grow
      • oral
        • the mouth is the focus of sensation and pleasurable experiences
        • happens from birth to 1 year old
        • biological evidence proves babies have more nerve endings in their mouths
        • from a survival point of view, deriving pleasure from suckling is important due to breastfeeding
        • may become fixated in this stage as an adult if you are under or over fed as a baby
      • anal
        • the child derives pleasures from the retention or expulsion of faeces
        • happens from 1-3 years old
        • when the ego develops
        • a person may become fixated in this stage if they had too lax or too strict potty training
          • can result in an anally retentive (controlled) or anally expulsive (controlling) personality
            • an anally retentive personality can result in OCD
      • phallic
        • this is when the child becomes fully aware of gender differences and becomes obsessed with its own genitals
        • this happens during 3-6 years old
        • Freud says this stage is the most important
      • latency
        • the child develops their mastery of the world around them
        • during this stage the conflicts and issues of previous issues are repressed
        • happens from 6-12 years old
      • genital
        • marks the beginning of mature adult sexuality
        • happens from 12 years old onwards
        • this is the calm of latency is disrupted as the id makes powerful demands in the form of heterosexual desires
        • this stage directs us towards sex and the beginnings of adult life
          • libido is our sexual energy
      • Freud says a person has to pass successfully though all these stages to become a successful adult
    • defence mechanisms
      • repression
        • forcing a distressing memory out our conscious mind
        • we know repression is influencing behaviour when the person is unaware of the reasons behind their behaviour
      • denial
        • this is the refusal to accept reality meaning the person can avoid having to deal with any painful feelings associated with a particular event
        • an example of this is an alcoholic refusing to accept they have a problem despite being arrested several times and losing their job
      • displacement
        • this is the redirection of hostile feelings to a more acceptable target
        • an example of this is someone having an argument with their partner and punches a wall or slams a wall
      • triggered when we are confronted with a situation we are unable to deal with
      • these are temporary and unconscious methods which distort reality so anxiety is reduced
    • despite being controversial it's had a huge impact and remained a dominant force in psychology in the 20th century and has been used to explain a wide range of phenomena
    • focuses on the individual so you can understand experiences in detail
    • given rise to psychoanalysis which uses a range of techniques that access the unconscious
    • Freud mainly used case studies for research meaning it is not generalizable or representative
    • doesn't meet scientific criteria for falsification and is not open to empirical testing

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Approaches resources »