Psychodynamic explanation of uni polar depression

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: bethcx
  • Created on: 18-02-16 16:17
View mindmap
  • Psycho-dynamic
    • Fred believed that vulnerability to depression began in the oral stage.
      • Either over gratification of under gratification can occur, which leads to oral fixation and an overly dependant personality type.
      • He also believed the way in which someone deals with loss and dependancy in childhood will set the scene for how they deal with similar experiences in adulthood.
        • He believed loss was key and this can be either real loss or symbolic loss
          • Real loss= death of a parent or symbolic person
          • Symbolic loss= a child's belief they've been abandoned
        • Grief as a result of loss may be followed by feelings of desertion and rejection. The child irrationally interprets this as it being their fault.
          • Therefore, a period of anger rage and guilt towards the loss occurs. These feelings can't be expressed outwardly so are turned inwardly and result in self-blame and self-punishment. He referred to this as introjection
            • A period of mourning follows and separation is made. However, if the child has become orally fixated, the emotional bonds can't be broke and the separation can't be made.
              • The anger and self blame continue to be turned inwards, leading to symptoms of depression.
                • Therefore, both introjection and being fixated in the oral stage result in depression.
    • Evaluation
      • Supported by more recent cognitive explanations of depression that argue that depressed people have negative and irrational thoughts.
      • Seligman's theory of learned helplessness also supports that depressed people are often highly dependent on others.
      • Contributed to our understanding of the importance of loss in the onset of depression
      • Depressed people often openly express anger and irritation which goes against Freud's idea of introjection
      • Lacks empirical evidence


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Depression resources »