AQA psychology relationships

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  • PsyA3 Relationships
    • Formation
      • Filter theory
        • Sprecher (1998)
          • couples who were similar in the first stage were more likely to have a long-term relationship
        • Gruber-baldini et al (1995)
          • couples who are similar are more likely to stay together after 20 years
        • Stages
          • social demo-graphic filter
          • similar attitudes and beliefs
          • complementary needs (important after 18 months)
        • evaulation
          • stage model
          • outdated (e.g. online dating)
      • reward/need theory
        • Smith and Mackie (2002)
          • Relationships which last the longest are the ones where the needs of both individuals are met
        • Rusbult (1996)
          • Rewards are important to determine how the relationship will develop
        • Evaluation
          • Takes into account individual differences
          • Underpins other theories
        • Everyone goes into a relationship with their own set of needs
    • Maintenance
      • Social exchange theory (Thibaut And Kelly 1959)
        • The best result from a relationship is to make maximum profit
        • Marelich et al. (2008)
          • Both genders avoid costs (e.g confrontation) to receive rewards (e.g. sex)
        • Brown (1986)
          • Doesn't explain couples who don't keep track of give and take
        • Evaluation
          • cultural bias, very westernised view
          • Doesn't explain why people stay in abusive relationships
      • Equity theory (Walster 1978)
        • balance between costs and rewards. Fairness is most important
        • Statford
          • Most satisfied couples were the ones who had equality in their relationship
        • Hatfield
          • Couples who perceived inequality were most likely to break up
        • Evaluation
          • cultural bias
          • Ignores relationships where the cost is greater than the reward
      • Investment theory (Rusbult 1983)
        • High satisfaction in the relationship = high commitment the possibility of alternatives = reduced commitment the level of commitment determines how much is invested in to the relationship
        • Evaluation
          • Lack of generalizability (college students)
            • Rusbult
              • High satisfaction in the relationship = high commitment the possibility of alternatives = reduced commitment the level of commitment determines how much is invested in to the relationship
          • bias towards heterosexual relationships
            • Rusbult
      • Breakdown
        • Duck's model
          • Intra-psychic phase
          • Dyadic phase
          • social phase
          • Grave-dressing phase
          • Kassin
            • women are more likely to stress unhappiness as the reason for breakup whereas men tend to blame lack of sex. Women are also more likely to want to remain friends.
              • gender differences are overlooked
          • Evaluation
            • Cultural bias (e.g. arranged marriages)
            • Reductionist
          • Doesn't apply to homosexual relationships where decisions such as children may not be involve
        • Lee's model
          • disatisfaction
          • Exposure
          • negotiation
          • Resolution attempts
          • Termination
          • Moghaddam et al
            • Focuses mainly on western relationships as they tend to centre around individualism and one's own needs
          • Evaluation
            • large sample size
            • low generalizability (mostly students)
            • Reductionist
      • Evolutionary theories
        • sexual selection
          • women have limited opportunity to get pregnant so must be choosier
          • men have an unlimited number of sperm so can father many children by different women in a short amount of time
          • Clark and Hatfield
            • A group of male and female students were approached by a member of the opposite sex and asked if they wanted to have sex. 75% of males and 0% of females agreed to this request.
          • Buss
            • Women look for finically secure mates and men look for young attractive mates
          • Evaluation
            • Deterministic
            • Heavily biological (ignores cultural factors)
        • Parental investment
          • Trivers
            • Women invest more because they must carry the offspring for 9 months and care for the child until it is old enough to care for it's self. Males have no enforced commitment as they only need to be present for the conception
          • Cuckoldry
            • Males may invest less as they can not be sure that the child they are raising is their own, whereas females know that they are the mother
          • Dunbar
            • Joint parental care is desirable as  males can increase the chances of their offspring's survival by sticking around
          • Evaluation
            • Deterministic
            • Ignores homosexual couples with children
      • Culture
        • In collectivist cultures such as India which value inter-dependence and focus on group needs arranged marriages are fairly common
        • Batabyal
          • Young people often chose mates based on attraction which can lead to poor choices and short term relationships. Family pick suitable partners based on family and economics which the young people can refuse.
        • Gupta and singh
          • Liking and love were high at the start of love marriages but decreased over time. This was the opposite for arranged marriages
        • Umadevi
          • A group of Indian female students from professional and non-professional backgrounds said that they would have an arranged marriage if it was consensual and would marry for love if their parents approved
        • Evaluation
          • Cultural bias (both cultures are likely to side with their own)
          • Outdated studies (some are 30 years old)
      • How childhood effects adult relationships
        • Bowlby
          • Based on his attachment theory, Internal working model derived from the relationship with the mother determines a view on how relationships work and how trustworthy other people are
        • Hazan and Shaver
          • In the love quiz it was found that secure babies grew up to have healthy relationships, avoidant babies doubted whether love really exists and ambivalent babies became jealous and possessive adults
        • Zimmerman et all
          • After major life events attachment types can change
        • Evaluation
          • Relationships are difficult to study scientifically
          • Deterministic
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