Protists

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  • Protists
    • Kingdom Protista
    • endosymbiosis
      • Endo: inside Symbiosis: mutualistic relationship between 2 or more species endosymbiosis: 1 species (endosymbiont) living within another (host)
      • smaller prokaryote (endosymbiont) engulfed by larger prokaryote (host)
      • heterotrophic eukaryote containing mitochondria evolved first
      • chloroplast evolved by endosymbiosis of a photosynthetic cyan bacterium later in time
      • plastid-bearing lineage of protists evolve into red & green algae
      • Sometimes, red/green algae are ingested by heterotrophic eukaryotes into food vacuole (secondary endosymbiosis)
    • most unicellular
    • most larger than bacteria
    • very diverse in structure & function
    • nutrition: parasitic, autotrophic or heterotrophic
    • Molds
      • Commonly: water mold and slime mold
      • Phylum Oomycota
        • water mold, white rust, downy mildew, etc.
        • Cause parasitic diseases in plants
      • Fungus-like protists
      • Phylum  Myxomycota
        • plasmodial slime mold, plasmodium, etc.
        • Nutrition: egulf bacteria and organic material
        • no: cell membrane/wall have: cytoplasm
        • Sexual reproduction
      • Phylum Acrasiomycota
        • live:damp soil/ rotting log
        • structure: pseudopods
        • nutrition: pseudopods engulf food (bacteria). if scarce, pseud-oplasmodium)
        • asexual and sexual reproduction
        • cellular slime mold, etc.
    • Protozoa
      • animal-like
      • Phylum Zoomastigina
        • Zooflagellates
        • Nutrients: heterotrophic
      • all unicellular and eukaryotic
      • Phylum Rhizopoda
        • freshwater
        • pseudopods, vacuoles
        • nutrients: heterotrophs
      • Phylum Granuloreticulosa
        • thread-like pseudopods
        • foraminferans- shells made of Calcium Carbonate
        • Radiolarians- shells made of silica
      • Phylum Apicomplexa
        • sporozoans
        • Adults immobile
        • nutrients: parasitic
        • sexual reproduction (spores)
      • Phylum Ciliophora
        • Ciliates (cilia around body)
        • reproduction: binary fission (conjugation)
    • Algae
      • Single-celled: phytoplankton multicellular: algae
      • plant-like
      • phytoplankton- 70% earth's photosynthetic activity
      • Phylum Dinoflagellata (Pyrrophyta)
        • live: marine
        • 2 flagella -logitudinal & tranverse
        • nutrients: autotrophs
      • Phylum Chrysophyta
        • diatoms
        • live: water
        • unicellular/ colonies
        • silica shells
        • nutrients: autotrophs
      • all photosynthesise
      • Phylum Euglenophyta (Euglena)
        • unicellular
        • 1 flagellum
        • flexible outer cover (pellicle)
        • eyespot- allow them to sense and move towards the light
        • nutrients: autotrophs
        • photosynthesis- store paramylon not starch
      • Phylum Rhodophyta
        • Red algae
        • live: mostly marine
        • multicellular
        • contains red pigment (covers chlorophyll)
      • Phylum Phaeophyta
        • live: marine
        • multicellular
        • browish, yellow pigments
        • majority live in cold ocean water
        • largest protists- dense kelp forests
        • Brown algae
  • plasmodial slime mold, plasmodium, etc.
  • flagellum
    • Phylum Zoomastigina
      • Zooflagellates
      • Nutrients: heterotrophic
  • Phylum Chlorophyta
    • Algae
      • Single-celled: phytoplankton multicellular: algae
      • plant-like
      • phytoplankton- 70% earth's photosynthetic activity
      • Phylum Dinoflagellata (Pyrrophyta)
        • live: marine
        • 2 flagella -logitudinal & tranverse
        • nutrients: autotrophs
      • Phylum Chrysophyta
        • diatoms
        • live: water
        • unicellular/ colonies
        • silica shells
        • nutrients: autotrophs
      • all photosynthesise
      • Phylum Euglenophyta (Euglena)
        • unicellular
        • 1 flagellum
        • flexible outer cover (pellicle)
        • eyespot- allow them to sense and move towards the light
        • nutrients: autotrophs
        • photosynthesis- store paramylon not starch
      • Phylum Rhodophyta
        • Red algae
        • live: mostly marine
        • multicellular
        • contains red pigment (covers chlorophyll)
      • Phylum Phaeophyta
        • live: marine
        • multicellular
        • browish, yellow pigments
        • majority live in cold ocean water
        • largest protists- dense kelp forests
        • Brown algae
    • green algae
    • can be green, orange, rust or red
    • freshwater & marine
    • unicellular & multicellular
    • contains chlorophyll a & b and carotenoid

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