Proteins - their Functions & Uses

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  • Proteins - their Functions and Uses
    • Proteins
      • protein molecules: made from long chains of amino acids
        • chains folded into specific 3-D shape, allows other molecules to fit into the protein
      • act as: structural components of tissues, such as muscles
        • hormones
        • antibodies
        • catalysts
    • enzymes
      • enzymes r biological catalysts made from proteins
        • catalysts increase rate of chemical reactions
      • shape of an enzyme vital for its function
      • high temps. change the shape of most enzymes
    • enzymes outside body cells
      • some enzymes work outside body cells
      • digestive enzymes produced by specialized cells in glands & in lining of the gut
        • the enzymes work as follows
          • 1. they pass out of the cells into digestive system
            • 2. they come into contact w food molecules
              • 3. they catalyze breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules
        • the digestive enzymes protease, lipase & amalyse r produced in 4 different regions of the digestive system: salivary glands, stomach, pancrease & small intestine
          • the enzymes digest proteins, fats & carbs to produce smaller molecules that can b absorbed easily into the bloodstream
        • amylase; is produced in salivary glands, pancreas & small intestine, digests starch & produces sugars in mouth & small intestine
        • protease; produced in stomach, pancreas & small intestine, digest proteins & produces amino acids in stomach & small intestine
        • lipase; produced in pancrease & small intestine, digests lipds & produces fatty acids & glycerol in small intestine
    • enzymes outside of body
      • bile produced in ur liver. stored in ur gall bladder bfore being released into small intestine
      • bile neutralises the acid that is added to food in ur stomach - produces alkaline conditions which enzymes in small intestine work best
    • uses of enzymes
      • in the home, biological detergents...
        • may contain protease enzymes, to break down blood & food stains
        • may contain lipase enzymes, to break down oil & grease stains
        • are more effective at lower temps. than other types of detergents
      • in industry various enzymes are used, such as...
        • proteases, to 'pre-digest' protein in some baby foods
        • carbohydrases, 2 convert starch into sugar syrup
        • isomerase, 2 convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup, which is sweeter & can be used in small quantities in slimming foods
      • enzymes are used in industry to bring about reactions at normal temps. & oressures


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