Proteins as enzymes

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  • Proteins as enzymes
  • speed up chemical reactions + make life possible
  • don't change themselves in chemical reactions
  • sensitive to surrounding conditions
  • lower activation energy
  • lactase
    • digests lactose by breaking  the lactose molecule
  • catalyst
    • changes the spped of a reaction without changing itself being changed
  • enzymes are proteins, but not all proteins are enzymes
  • 'ase':  suffix used to indicate that a chemical is an enzyme
  • chemical reactions require a small concentration of enzymes
  • enzymes recognize + interact with specific molecules
  • Substrate
    • molecule that enzymes interact with
  • active site
    • region of enzyme that recognizes the substrate
    • specific shape + structure determines the molecules it interacts with
  • specific shape + structure determines the molecules it interacts with
  • product
    • end result of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
  • bring molecules together
  • speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy
  • activation energy
    • amount of energy required for the reaction
  • Saturated
    • when rate eventually reaches its maximum
    • when the amount of substrate matches the amount of available enzymes, saturation occurs
      • then the rate of reaction no longer increases
  • when concentration is low, adding more molecules speeds it up
  • Vitamins help produce co- enzymes
  • may require Zn + Cu ; co-factors : help with moving electrons, providing energy + binding mols.
  • environment influences its activity. Hight temps may break a protein, changing its shape.

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