DNA and protein synthesis

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  • Created by: Sarah
  • Created on: 26-01-15 09:29
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  • PROTEINS AND DNA
    • definitions
      • GENE: a length of DNA that codes for one or more polypeptide
      • POLYPEPTIDE: a polymer consisting of a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
      • GENOME:
    • Protein examples
      • haemoglobin
      • antibodies
      • channel proteins
      • enzymes
      • collagen
      • keratin
    • Genetic code
      • TRIPLET CODE:         3 bases = 1 amino acid = 1 codon
      • DEGENERATE CODE: amino acids have more than one code
      • start and stop codons
    • PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
      • TRANSCRIPTION
        • (1) gene unwinds and unzips and hydrogen bonds between base pairs break
        • (4) activated RNA nucleotides bind to exposed bases
          • A - G
          • G - C
          • catalysed by RNA polymerase
        • (2) two phosphates release
        • mRNA is produced
          • complementary to TEMPLATE strand
          • copy of CODING strand
        • (3) RNA nucleotides are activated
        • (5) two phosphates provide energy for bonding of adjacent nucleotides
      • TRANSLATION
        • the assembly of polypeptides at ribosomes
        • ribosome moves along mRNA reading the codons and holding the codon-anticodon complex together until they form a bond
        • (1) start codon
          • AUG
        • (2) tRNA brings complementary anticodon
          • UAC
          • methionine
        • (3) second tRNA brings amino acid with complementary anticodon
        • (4) peptide bond between adjacent amino acids
          • peptidyl transferase
        • (5) ribosome continues to move along the mRNA
        • (6) stop codon
          • UAA
          • UAC
          • UGA
    • Ribosomes
      • made of protein and rRNA
      • small unit
        • where the mRNA molecule binds
        • Two codons (6 bases) attach at one time
      • large unit
    • protein structure
      • primary
        • The unique sequence of amino acids that makes up a protein
      • secondary
        • folding of the primary into alpha coils or beta-pleated sheets
          • hydrogen bonds
      • tertiary
      • quartenary
        • the combining of two or more polypeptide chains or with a prosthetic group

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