Proteins

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  • Proteins
    • Amino acids = monomers
      • Amine group
      • Carboxylic Acid group
      • All have an 'R group' that is a possible of 20 groups
      • All have a Nitrogen atom coming off the central carbon atom
    • Peptides
      • Amino Acids are joined in condensation reaction
      • Water molecule removed from the OH group on carboxylic acid goup and a H group from the amine group on another amino acid forms a peptide bond between amino acids
      • Broken by a hydrolysis reaction (add water)
    • Polypeptide is a chain of many amino acids
    • Globular proteins
      • Dissolve in water
      • Hydrophilllic R Groups on the surface
      • Hydrophobic R Groups on the interior
      • The different R groups are attracted and provide the protein with strength
      • Specific spherical Shape
      • Haemoglobin
    • Fibrous proteins
      • Strong
      • Don't dissolve in water
      • Long thin chains
        • Dozens lie parallel to each other making the structure very strong
    • Collagen
      • Found in.. arteries and the tunica externa of veins, cartilage
      • Made of glycine, proline and alanine
        • Very compact R Groups
          • Allows the chains to get close to each other and allows H bonds to form
        • Primary Structure (don't have the other structures)
      • 1 collagen molecule = 3 polypeptide chains
        • Wound around in triple helix
          • Held by H bonds
            • As there's lots it makes molecule strong
    • Collagen Fibre
      • Bundle of collagen molecules
      • Covalent bonds between the parallel molecules - form between a free carboxylic acid of one chain and a lysine of another chain
        • Lots of these cross links make it stronger and as the ends of the molecules are staggered prevents any line of weakness

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