Proteins

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  • Proteins
    • Needed for growth, repair and maintenance.
      • Repair: repairing our muscles, tissues and organs after illness or injury.
      • Growth: from childhood to adulthood and for growth of nails, hair and muscle mass.
      • Maintenance: to make enzymes for digestion and antibodies to stop us getting ill.
    • Needed from a wide range of foods such as; meat, fish diary products, nuts, seeds and beans.
    • Made up of amino acids - these can be thought of as the building blocks of the body.
      • Our bodies can make some amino acids - these are called non-essential amino acids. There are 11 non-essential amino acids.
        • We have to eat the amino acids that our bodies can't make - these are called essential amino aicds. There are 9 essential amino acids.
    • High and Low  Biological Value
      • High: Contain all the essential amino acids we need. They are manily found in animal sources e.g. meat, fish, poultry, eggs and milk. Soya beans and quinnoa are plant-based HBV protein foods.
      • Low: Are missing one or more essential amino acids we need. They're only found in plant sources e.g. peas, lentils, nuts, seeds and most beans, and in smalleramounts in vegetables like spinach.
    • If we don't get enough HBV protein, we have to combine different LBV proteins to get all the essential amino acids in or diet. This is called Protein Complementation
    • Dietary ference values are estimates of the amount of nutrients people should have in their diet. An average male should consume 55g and an average female should consume 45g of protein each day.
    • In reality, the amount of protein different peoplle need varies: Growing children need a greater amount of protein. Pregnant women need about 6g more protein to help the baby grow.
      • Physically active people need more protein for muscle growth and repair.

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