Protein topics

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  • Proteins
    • Amino acid biosynthesis
      • Nitrogen fixation
        • Haber process
          • N2 + 3H2 ---> 2NH3
        • Lightning
          • Split N2, react with O2
        • N fixing bacteria / algae
          • Nitrogenase complex
            • reduction
      • Assimilation
        • a-ketoglutarate
          • glutamate
            • glutamine
            • Glutamate synthetase. ATP
              • glutamine
          • glutamate dehydrogenase.       NADH
            • glutamate
              • Glutamate synthetase. ATP
        • Transamination
          • Carbon skeletons
            • keto-acids
              • aminotransferases
                • Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)
            • Major metabolic precursors
              • Further reactions: oxidation, hydrolysis, methylation
                • S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)
      • Protein synthesis
        • Elongation
          • EF1a  carries tRNA to (A) aminoacyl site
            • Peptide bond formation at Peptidyl transferase centre (P)
              • Translocation to move in triplet code
        • Termination
          • eRF1 release factor binds at stop codon
            • Cleaves polypeptide chain
        • Post-translational modifications
          • Phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, hydroxylation
            • Enhances complexity
      • Amino acid catabolism
        • Transamination
          • Glutamate
            • Oxidative deamination
              • NH4+
              • a-ketoglutarate
        • Urea cycle
          • remove excess N
          • 5 step cycle
      • Protein degradation
        • Digestive system
          • Zymogens
            • Active enzyme proteases
          • acidic pH
            • Zymogens
              • Active enzyme proteases
        • Non-specific proteases
          • Serine protease activity
            • Ser-His-asp catalytic triad
          • Lysosomal proteolysis
            • hydrolytic enzymes
            • non-selective
        • Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway
          • Ubiquitination
            • E1 activation
            • E2  conjugation
            • E3 - ligation
            • 19S cap
              • Recognition
              • Unfolding
              • 20S core
                • B1, B2, B5
                  • Threonine protease mechanism
                    • Catalytic centre
                • Catalytic centre
    • eIF2 + GTP activate tRNA
      • Initiation
        • Protein synthesis
          • Elongation
            • EF1a  carries tRNA to (A) aminoacyl site
              • Peptide bond formation at Peptidyl transferase centre (P)
                • Translocation to move in triplet code
          • Termination
            • eRF1 release factor binds at stop codon
              • Cleaves polypeptide chain
          • Post-translational modifications
            • Phosphorylation, methylation, acetylation, hydroxylation
              • Enhances complexity
        • eIF1 & 3 bind 40s
          • PIC scans for start AUG
            • eIF2 + GTP activate tRNA
              • Initiation
                • eIF1 & 3 bind 40s
                  • PIC scans for start AUG
                  • eIF4 binds 5' cap
            • eIF4 binds 5' cap

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