Unit 2 Section 2.3 Protein Synthesis

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  • Protein Synthesis
    • Genes
      • DNA contains genes. A gene is a sequence of DNA nucleotides that codes for a protein
        • proteins are made from amino acids. different proteins have a different number and order of amino acids
          • its the order of nucleotide bases in a gene that determines the order of amino acids in a particular protein
            • each amino acid is coded for by a sequence of three bases in a gene. different sequences of bases code for different amino acids
    • Gene Mutations
      • Mutations are changes in the base sequence of an organism's DNA. if the sequence of bases in a gene changes, the sequence of amino acids in the protein it codes for may also change
        • This may affect the way the protein folds up and so its overall 3D shape. As a result, a different or non - functional protein could be produced
    • DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis
      • All the reactions and processes in living organisms need proteins. DNA carries the instructions t omake proteins so its obviously vital for protein synthesis. RNA plays a key role too
        • DNA molecules are found in the nucleus of the cell.
          • The organelles that assemble proteins are called RIBOSOMES - they're found in the cytoplasm DNA is too large to move out of the nucleus, so a section is copied into a molecule called mRNA.
            • The mRNA leaves the nucleus and joins with a ribosome in the cytoplasm, where it can be used to synthesise a protein


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